英语基本句型大全(5200字)

发表于:2016.9.25来自:www.ttfanwen.com字数:5200 手机看范文

英语基本句型大全

英语的基本句型主要有五种,它们是:

1、主语——动词——表语

2、主语——动词

3、主语——动词——宾语

4、主语——动词——宾语——宾语

5、主语——动词——宾语——补语

掌握好这些基本句型,就可以为灵活运用语言打下良好的基础。下面分别讲解这五种句型。

一、主语——动词——表语

在这一句型中,动词是系动词,划线部分为表语。

1.Mr.Brown is an engineer.(名词做表语)

2.Gradualy he became silent.(形容词做表语)

3.She remained standing for a hour.(现在分词做表语)

4.The question remained unsolved.(过去分词做表语)

5.The machine is out of order.(介词短语做表语)

6.The television was on.(副词做表语)

7.His plan is to keep the affair secret.(动词不定式做表语)

8.My job is repairing cars.(动名词做表语)

9.The question is what you want to do.(从句做表语,即:表语从句)

注意:在下面的句子中,形容词做表语,在表语的后面常常接不定式结构。 I'm happy to meet you.

They are willing to help.

We are determined to follow his example.

二、主语——动词

在这一句型中,动词为不及物动词及不及物的动词词组。在有的句子中,不及物动词可以有状语修饰。

1.The sun is rising.

2.I'll try.

3.Did you sleep well?(well做状语,修饰不及物动词sleep)

4.The engine broke down.

注意:在此句型中,有少数不及物动词表达被动含义,表达主语本身所具有的特性,不用被动语态。

1.The book sells wel.

2.The window won't shut.

3.The pen writes smoothly.

4.Cheese cuts easily. (接下页)

三、主语——动词——宾语

在此句型中,动词为及物动词,划线部分为宾语。

1.Do you know these people(them)?(名词或代词做宾语)

2.I can't express myself in English.(反身代词做宾语)

3.He smiled a strange smile.(同源宾语)

4.We can't afford to pay such a price.(不定式做宾语)

5.Would you mind waiting a few minutes?(动名词做宾语)

6.I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.(从句做宾语,即:宾语从句) 注意:并不是所有的及物动词都可以接上述各种情况做宾语,不同的动词有不同的用法,所以,在学习动词时,一定要掌握其用法。

四、主语——动词——宾语——宾语

在此句型中,动词可以称作双宾语动词,在英语中,这样的动词并不多,在学习遇时,要牢记。后面的宾语为间接宾语和直接宾语,其中间接宾语在前,一般表人,直接宾语在后,一般表物。这类句型有三种情况。

第一种情况,间接宾语可以改为to引导的短语。

1.He handed me a letter.

He handed a letter to me.

2.She gave me her telephone number.

She gave her telephone number to me.

第二种情况,间接宾语可以改为for引导的短语。

3.She sang us a folk song.

She sang a folk for us.

4.She cooked us a delicious meal.

She cooked a delicious meal for us.

第三种情况,直接宾语可以由宾语从句充当。

5.Tell him I'm out.

6.Can you inform me where Miss Green lives?

五、主语——动词——宾语——宾语补足语

在此句型中的动词,叫做可以跟复合宾语的动词,在英语中,这样的动词也不多。后面的宾语补足语是说明宾语的情况的,宾语和宾语补足语一起被称做复合宾语。这个句式是英语中比较复杂的一个句式,因为复合宾语的构成内容较多。下面句子中划线部分为宾语补足语。

1.He found his new job boring.(形容词做宾补)

2.The called their daughter Mary.(名词做宾补)

3.This placed her in a very difficult position.(介词短语做宾补)

4.We went to here house but found her out.(副词做宾补)

5.What do you advise me to do?(不定式做宾补)

6.We thought him to be an honest man.(tobe做宾补)

7.He believed them to have discussed the problem.(不定式的完成式做宾补)

8.He believed her to be telling the truth.(不定式的进行式做宾补)

9.Did you notice him come in?(不带to的不定式做宾补)

10.I saw her chatting with Nancy.(现在分词做宾补)

11.He watched the piano carried upstairs.(过去分词做宾补)

注意:在这个结构中,可以出现用it做形式上的宾语,把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语的后面。在此结构中,宾语常常是动词不定式或宾语从句。

1.He felt it his duty to mention this to her.

分析:it是形式宾语,hisduty是宾语补足语,to mention this to her是真正的宾语。

2.I think it best that you should stay with us.

分析:it是形式宾语,best是宾语补足语,that you should stay with us是真正的宾语。(接下页)

注意:

1.习惯用语的使用

在英语中,有很多动词习惯用语,在学习的过程中,要注意它们的使用,不必分析单独每个词的使用。

例:

We are short of money.(be short of中short做表语)

She is always making trouble for her friends.(trouble做make的宾语)

He has carried out our instructions to the letter.(our instructions做词组carry out的宾语)

We are waiting for the rain to stop.(wait for后面的the rain是宾语,to stop是宾语补足语)

2.在英语中,大多数动词既可以做及物动词又可以做不及物动词,而且还会有一些固定词组,因此一个动词可以用于几种句型。

例:ask

①Did you ask the price?(直接接名词做宾语)

②She asked them their names.(接双宾语)

③I asked James to buy some bread.(接宾语加不定式做宾语补足语) ④I asked to speak to Fred.(接不定式做宾语)

⑤Didn't you ask him in?(在此句中和副词in连用)

⑥He has asked for an interview with the President.(组成固定词组ask for)

3.There be句型是一种特殊的句子,真正的主语在后面,含义为“有…” ①谓语动词和主语保持一致:There is a television in the sitting room.

②有两个或更多的主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致:There are two girls and a boy dancing in the hall.

③主语的后面有时有修饰语:There are a lot of difficulties facing us.There were many things to be done(此处也可以使用to do).

④谓语动词be可以有时态的变化:There will be a concert in the park tonight.There was little change in him.

⑤谓语也可以有不定式构成的复合谓语。

There used to be a cinema here.

There seems to be something the matter with her.

Is there going to be any activity tonight?

⑥there be句式变疑问句,把be提前;变翻译疑问句也要借助there。 Is there any hope of getting the job?

There is nothing wrong with your watch,is there?

⑦there be句型中也可以使用诸如:live,follow,come,stand,sit,exist等不及物动词:

Once upon a time,there lived a fisherman on the island.

There came a knock at the door.

At the top of the hill there stands an old temple.

⑧用于非谓语的情况下,有时用不定式的复合结构there to be或动名词的复合结构和独立主格结构there being:

You wouldn't want there to be another war.(不定式的复合结构)

The teacher was satisfied with there being no mistakes in his homework.(动名词的复合结构)

There being nothing else to do,we went home.(独立主格结构)

■巩固性练习

请判断下列句子的结构类型

1.He is running.

2.The loud voice from the upstairs made him angry.

3.The little boy is asking the teacher all kinds of questions.

4.She seemed angry.

5.My father bought me a beautiful present.

6.Why do you keep your eyes closed?

7.Will you tell us an exciting story?

8.We must keep our classroom tidy and clean.

9.I heard the baby crying in the sitting room.

10.Can you push the window open? 答案:

1.主语---动词

2.主语---动词---宾语---补语

3.主语---动词---宾语---宾语

4.主语---动词----表语

5.主语---动词---宾语---宾语

6.主语---动词---宾语---宾语

7.主语---动词---宾语---补语

8.主语---动词---宾语---补语

9.主语---动词---宾语---补语

10.主语---动词---宾语---补语

(编辑:赵露)




第二篇:英语基本句型和练习大全 6200字

英语基本句型

一. 英语基本句型-2主谓结构/S(主)+ Vi(不及物动词)(谓)

本结构是由主语加不及物的谓语动词构成, 常用来表示主语的动作。

如:The sun rises. Tom has already left.

主语可有修饰语-定语,谓语可有修饰语-状语。

如:1. The red sun rises in the east.

2. So they had to travel by air or boat.

3.We got up early so as to catch the first bus.

4. She sat there alone, reading a novel.

5. He came back when we were eating.

6.Weak buildings will fall down in an earthquake, but strong ones may stay up.

巩固练习2:

1.她昨天回家很晚。

2.会议将持续两个小时。

3.在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大

4.19xx年,在北京爆发了“五.四”运动。

5.每天八时开始上课。

二. 英语基本句型-1主系表结构/S (主)+ V(谓)(lv)( 系动词)+ P(表)

本结构是由主语+系动词+表语组成,主要用以说明主语的特征,类属,状态,身份等。系动词有:1.表示特征和存在状态的:be, seem, feel, appear, look, smell, taste, sound;

2.表示状态延续的:remain, stay, keep, continue, stand;

3.表示状态变化的:become, get, turn, go, run, fall, come, grow;

如:Our English teacher is thirty years old.

The cake tastes delicious.

We feel used to living in big cities.

The potatoes went bad in the fields.

Their boss seems satisfied with the work.

Deep water stays still.

巩固练习1:

1.冬季白天短,夜晚长

2.十五岁他就成为有名的钢琴家了。

3.孩子们很少保持安静。

4.她的工作是在幼儿园里照看儿童。

5.他失业了。

三.英语基本句型-3主谓宾结构/S (主)+ Vt (及物动词)(谓)+ O(宾)

本结构是由主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语构成。宾语成分的多样化使得这一结构异常复杂。 如:1. Tom made a hole in the wall.

2. I don’t know if he can come tomorrow.

3. They haven’t decided where to go next.

4. She stopped teaching English two years ago.

5. It took them ten years to build the dam.

7. Mother promises to give me a present.

巩固练习3:

1.昨晚我写了一封信。

2.今天下午我想同你谈谈。

3.这本书他读过多次了。

4.他们成功地完成了计划。

5.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。

四.英语基本句型4 双宾语结构/S (主)+VT(谓)+ InO(间接宾)+ DO(直接宾) 说明:此结构由“主语+及物谓语动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(事物)”组成。 如:He brings me cookies every day.

但若要先说出直接宾语(事物),后说间接宾语(人),则要借助于介词to或for。

如:He brings cookies to me every day.

She made a beautiful dress for me.

用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。

用for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。

常跟双宾语的动词有:(需借助to的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask等;

(需借助for 的)buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare等。 巩固练习4:

1.Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。

2.奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。

3.请把那本字典递给我好吗?

4.他把车票给列车员看。

5.我替你叫辆出租汽车好吗?

五英语基本句型5 复合宾语结构/S (主)+ VT(谓)+ O(宾)+ O C(宾补)

说明: 此结构由“主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语”构成。宾语与宾语补足语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系或主表关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不够完整。可以用做宾补的有:名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,动词不定式,分词等。

如:The sun keeps us warm.

I heard him singing.

You must get your hair cut.

They made Tom monitor.

He used to do his homework with his radio on.

用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语的后面,以使句子结构平衡,是英语常用的句型结构方式。即:主语+谓语+it+宾补+真正宾语。

如:I found it very pleasant to be with your family.

巩固练习5:

1.我们叫她Alice.

2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。

3.他们把小偷释放了。

4.我要你把真相告诉我。

5 .卫兵命令我们立即离开。

六.英语基本句型6 There be 句型

说明: 此句型是由“there+be+主语+状语”构成,用以表达存在关系可以称“……有……”。它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际语意。 此句型有时不用be动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等。 如:There stands a hill in the middle of the park.

Once upon a time there lived an old king in the town.

Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如:

现在有 there is/are …

过去有 there was/were…

将来有 there will be…;there is /are going to be...

现在已经有 there has/have been…

可能有 there might be...

肯定有 there must be …/there must have been...

过去曾经有 there used to be …

似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be …

碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be …

巩固练习6:

1.这个村子过去只有一口井。

2.客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。

3.天气预报说下午有大风。

4.灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。

5.战前这儿一直有家电影院的.

课文句子翻译练习:

1. 他们正在面对面地交谈。(face)

_______________________________________________________________.

2. 根据约翰说的, 下周将有一次会议。(according)

________________________________________________________________.

3. 他早起为了赶头班车。 (in order to)

________________________________________________________________.

4. 你和你的同学相处得怎么样? (get along with)

_______________________________________________________________.

5. 我们对他的安全都很关切。 (concern)

_______________________________________________________________.

6. 你是否需要一个你可以无话不谈的朋友?

____________________________________________________________________.

7. 你近况如何?

_____________________________________________________________________.

8. 我们成为好朋友已十年了。

_____________________________________________________________________.

9. 我还没来得及回答他的第一个问题, 他又问了一个问题。

_____________________________________________________________________.

10. 我像大部分人那样记日记。

____________________________________________________________________.

英语基本句型练习答案

巩固练习答案1:1.In winter, the days are short and the nights are long.

2.At the age of fifteen, he became a famous pianist.

3.Children seldom keep quiet.

4.Her job is to look after the children in the nursery.

5.He is out of work.

巩固练习答案2:1. She went home very late yesterday evening.

2. The meeting will last two hours.

3. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years.

4. The May Fourth Movement broke out

in Beijing in 1919.

5. Classes begin at eight every day.

巩固练习答案3:1. I wrote a letter last night.

2. I want to talk with you this afternoon.

3. He has read this book many times.

4. They have carried out the plan successfully.

5. That gentleman can speak three languages fluently.

巩固练习答案4:1.Mr Johnson taught us German last year.

2.Grandma told me an interesting story last night.

3.Would you please pass me the dictionary?

4.He showed the ticket to the conductor.

5.Shall I call you a taxi?

巩固练习答案5:

1.We call her Alice.

2.All of us considered him honest.

3.They have set the thief free.

4.I want you to tell me the truth.

5.The guards ordered us to leave at once.

巩固练习答案6:1.There was only a well in the village.

2.Among the guests there were two Americans and two Frenchmen.

3.The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon.

4.The light is on. There must be someone ion the office.

5.There used to be a cinema here before the war.

课文句子翻译练习答案:1. They are talking face to face./ They are having a face-to face talk.

2. According to John, there is going to be a meeting next week.

3. He got up early in order to catch the first bus.

4. How are you getting along with your classmates?

5. We are all concerned about his safety.

6. Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to?

7. How are you getting along / on recently?

8. We have been good friends for ten years.

9. He asked a second question before I could answer the first one.

10. I keep a diary as most people do.

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