summary 答案 英学术演讲与写作(5000字)

发表于:2018.4.29来自:www.ttfanwen.com字数:5000 手机看范文

Summary of ‘scientists shouldn’t be surprised by the popularity of intelligent design’

①In his article scientists should not be surprised by the popularity of intelligent design which addresses many scientists , grumps over the persistence of ID(intelligent design), scott Lilienfeld postulates that many Americans, approval of ID cannot be blamed on their lack of common sense but rather their dependence on their common sense or intuition in making judgements which turns them away from the theory of natural selection.② According to Lilienfeld ,the difficulty in intuiting how marvelous creatures and organisms have resulted from natural selection has prevented many Americans from accepting Darwinian Theory while the same common sense has made ID rather tempting to them. ③As is indicated by a multitude of examples of wrong beliefs based on common sense, intuition does not provide a reliable means of understanding the world. ④Unfortunately, scientists and science educators have failed to teach research methods and academic skills that can help debunk misconceptions compatible with people,s common sense. ⑤Finally , Lilienfeld concludes that a radical shift in science education has to be initiated so that scientists would not face a fiasco when confronting erroneous claims refuged by people,s common sense.

Summary of ‘Empowerment and Restraint in Scientific Communication’

①In his article “empowerment and restraint in scientific communication”, Philip Campbell highlights a dire likely consequence of biologists” increased ability to obtain and distribute scientific information that such information may be exploited by people with heinous intentions. ②Scientific communication, according to Campbell, has seen significant development due to the invention of powerful software and hardware that facilitate scientists” acquisition of information and reduce the trouble they may otherwise have to take in order to publicize their research. ③ However, the resulting plethora of biological information spawns a hazard that the information may be used to build biological weapons, and this hazard has come to people”s attention with synthetic biology”s recent development. ④Campbell points out that it is relatively easy to abuse biological knowledge while biological studies often bring about unexpected results.⑤ People using biological information for malicious purpose may be whoever have learnt to exploit simple biological technologies and are not necessarily committed to terrorist agendas.⑥ Campbell believes that the decisions made by funding agencies and scientific journals who are the gatekeepers of biological research will be crucial in reducing the risks of information abuse and what proactive measure should be taken has to be considered by all related parties.

Summary of ‘ethical, legal and social implications of autonomous systems’

In his article”Ethical legal and social Implications of Autonomous systems”,Austin Modine highlights that robot driver will control the vehicles which raises problems in different social levels.Autonomous robots will deprive people of their control.For Modine’s assume that human interaction is necessary,but human will make mistakes because of their wrong decision.Autonomous systerms also have a tendency to make mistake.And there is a problem that who will be responsible for the failure.A concern that autonomous systems are held back until they don’t make mistakes any more.The reaction to failures between autonomous systems and manned systems should be chosen if it make less mistakes than human-operators and technical systems.Finally,Austine Modine conclude that many questions should be solved in order to make autonomous systems accept legally and socially.

Summary of ‘why do things become more complex’

In his article “Why Do Things Become More Complex” Carrington highlights a phenomenon that simplicity becomes more complex, and people are interested in the complexity. In the history, the turbojet engine invented by Frank Whittle just use a simple compressor-turbine combination as the motivation. After many years, the jet engine changed more complicated as the pressure of commercial and military interests, usually by adding a subsystem. Modern engines have a vastly complex array of interconnected subsystems subassemblyes. The jet engines work like a cheetah both in the outside and inside, sleekly and complicatedly. In the process of growing complexity, it has many obstacle for people to overcome, such as new bureaucratic offices and departments. The complexity brings a mass of problems to keep the performance like maintenance repairs, et.al.. And functions and modifications tends to increase complexity through overcoming limitations, abnormal circumstances and adapting to the complex world. The renewable simplicity often emerges slowly after the growing complication. Finally, Carrington concludes that complexity should be checked so that it can evolves naturally and deliver powerful performance. And also need to final things to bring renewable simplicity after the complexity..




第二篇:英文概要_summary_的写作 4600字

第4卷 第2期衡水师专学报Vol.4,No.2

                        

20xx年6月JournalofHengshuiNormalCollegeJun.2002

英文概要(summary)的写作

赵 金 东

(衡水师范专科学校外语系,河北衡水053000)

摘 要:读懂原材料是写好概要的关键。拟就合适题目及简要提纲也是不可或缺的。据此成文再详加润色。根据内容需要

适当引用例子、数据及引语等,使概要更充实。

关键词:概要;提纲;引语中图分类号:H315   文献标识码:A   文章编号:1008-()02-  英文概要(summary)手段之一。的写法很重要,学习(读报刊、看小说、听材料))、工作(如个人总结)等都写概要。,可详可略。在几十字,几百字,甚至几千字的概要中要想准确展示原作的主要思想决非易事。从语言本身到谋篇技巧决非一日之功,需要反复地磨练。本文的多数引例均以周学艺先生编注的

(精选本)(以下简称)为基础,取《英美报刊文章选读》《选读》材范围不广,但其中涉及的写作方法与技巧对学生能起到抛砖引玉的作用。

那么什么是英文的概要呢?简单地说,就是用尽可能少的词汇集中展现原材料的主要思想及观点。概要不同于作文:原作可长可短,长到一部电影或一部几百页的小说,短至只有几十字的一个段落。概要是简写或再现其他人的观点、

思想,是再现(representation);而作文写的是作者本人的观点,是新创作(creation)。写概要无须加评论,评论了就不是概要了,那是再创作。那么,如何才能写好英文的概要呢?

1.先要读懂、读透原作。这是准确再现原文、写好英文

):BeautifulmountainslikeMountTai,once

visitedbyonlyafewpeople,aretodayaccessibletomany,thankstobetterwages,paidholidays,newhotelsandbettercommunica2tion

[2][P66]

.

分析:原文提到中国的几大名山,过去罕有人至。如今,随着旅游设施等条件的改善,去那儿旅游不再是幻想。原文内容较为详细,充实,共53个字。概要中有27个字,概括地交代了景区旅游的过去及当今的情况。

2.拟出题目。题目反映作者对原作的理解。概要的题

目要明确,一读就可以知道原作的主要内容或主题,并且不

应设任何障碍,如:不出现5个W问题(When,What,Where,

Who,Why)和一个H问题(How)。题目的形式可写成句子,

也可写成短语。试比较:

(1)TheNewwhizz-kid(神童)  (不合适)

(2)AsianAmericans:shiningstarsintheUS (可以)

(3)Theaging:nocuttingofthesocialsecurity (可以)(4)Defendingthesocialsecurity (不合适)

(5)GreyingarmiesMarchtodefendthesocialsecurity (可以)

概要的前提,十分重要。动笔前不妨多读两遍原文直至搞懂、读透为止。这一点往往被学生忽略。倘若不明白原作的主旨,又怎能再现别人的观点呢?那只能是片面地理解、歪曲。如:

原文:BeautifulmountainslikeMountTaiLushanMountain,

andYellowMountain,werevisitedbyonlyafewpeopleinthepast.Today,betterwages,holidayswithpay,newhotelsonthosemoun2tainsandbettertrainandbusservices,havebroughtthemwithinreachtomanywhoneverthoughtofvisitingthemtenyearsago

[1][P265~266]

分析:作为一篇文章的标题应该醒目,吸引人,可以设问,(如:DosetheUSspytoomuch?)从而激发读者去思考。但作为一篇概要的题目须简明扼要,明确主题,没有谜点。因此,笔者认为:题目(1)TheNewwhizKids(神童)中并未清楚地

英文概要summary的写作

告知:Whoarethenewwhizkids?Wheredoesthathappen?而题目(2)AsianAmericans:shiningstarsintheUS则明确地讲述了美籍亚洲人是美国的耀眼明星。所以,作为英文概要的题目以第2句话为宜。

题目(4)Defendingthesocialsecurity没有说出whoisde2

fendingthesocialsecurity?很显然,这是一个不全面的标题。

.

收稿日期:2002-04-23

作者简介:赵金东(1966-),男,河北枣强县人,衡水师专外语系助教.

第2期                 赵金东 英文概要(summary)的写作                 25而其他两个题目就好些。题目(3)Theaging:nocuttingofthesocialsecurity虽不是句子,但讲出了全面的内容(老年人呼吁不可以削减社会福利),其中一个“:”使得题目简洁、达意。(5)GreyingarmiesMarchtodefendthesocialsecurity是一个完整的句子,交代了社会福利的捍卫者(灰白发的老年人),采取的方式(游行)以及游行的目的(维护社会福利保障制度)。

3.拟好提纲(outline)。原作者写作中一般均有写作提

在《选读》的第五课中,谈到美国的美籍亚洲裔学生的优秀表现。在探究其成功的原因时,其中提到儒家思想(Confu2

cianideals)的影响。有同学这样写到:

Asianculture,likeConfucianideals,exertsafar-reachinginfluenceonthem.

句中Confucianideals的内容是什么?概要中应讲清。试写为:

Asianculture,likeConfucianidealswhichstressfamilyvaluesandfamilyeducation,exertsafar-reachinginfluenceonthem.

纲,这样写起文章来会繁而不乱,有条理。读者的阅读过程就是一个梳理原作框架,理解、吃透原文的解码过程。在此过程中,就须理出一个粗略的提纲,这个纲目对理解原作帮助很大,尤其在有关外报外刊的概要时更明显。因为外报外刊从行文顺序、谋篇布局到主论点的阐述方式均不同于汉语作品:中文的论点较为集中;外刊中解释性报道居多,解释多而细。文章越细,给人的印象越繁杂凌乱。因此,拟就一个小提纲(哪怕几个单词或词组),写起概要来文章就会有章法,而且也不会漏掉原作中的要点。因为概要也该是意义连贯、语篇衔接紧密的一段或几段文字。

4.快速成文,反复推敲。写作时,storm(大脑风暴),,可

在许多报道中,尤其是科技性报道、科研项目中,为说明报道、项目研究的权威性会有很多数据,概要中引用典型的一个就够了。

第二,引语(用)问题。,当然不排斥引用。、句子写的十分精彩。若

,(写作有关外报外刊的,同样也要善于汲取语言的精华。而运用是很有效的一种方式。反过来讲,引用不当就是画蛇添足。需要强调一点:引用不是抄袭,而是为我所用。语言上要多加润色。注意词类、时态、语态等的适当调整。

如“:Weshouldn’tbethreatened,butchallenged.Theirpres2

enceisgoingtobeagreatblessingforsociety.”saidMathematicianCappell,partofaJewishimmigrantsuccessstory

[3][P39]

以不受限制地去写,,,,也不多考虑语篇的衔接与否,很快写出一篇东西。依笔者理解,拟好提纲后,写作尽量一气呵成,一次成文。将这一方法移植于概要写作之教学,颇受学生欢迎。虽说每一次写概要是一个痛苦思索的过程,但它却锻炼了学生的不间断思维能力。写作变得不再枯燥、乏味。倘若在写作过程中考虑如何写得更好,势必影响写作思路,影响写作的连续性。写作中愈加谨慎,思路被束缚愈紧,不能很好地展开。一旦有了初稿,等于画树有了枝干,这时的写作成了一半。然后再读原文,对照修改润色,看是否漏掉了什么重要信息或主要内容。另外,用词上看是否搭配恰当、达意。这一过程中的修改很重要,因为概要中的每个字

(词)都要有用场。可用可无的,要删去。使别人读了概要,基本不用了解原文,足矣。

5.写作过程中还有几个问题:第一,例子、数据的问题。

.

可否这样改写:

AccordingtoaJewishimmigrantMathematician,thepresenceofAsianAmericansisnotathreatbutachallenge,andalsoagreatblessingforsociety.

改写后的句子根据行文需要,将动词换成了名词,变换了人称、时态、语态。这就是为我所用。总之,英文概要是一种很好的写作练习,只要掌握了好的方法与技巧,加上大量

的写作实践,定能写出上佳的概要(summary)来。

参考文献:

[1] 丁往道.英语写作手册(修订本)[M].北京:外语研究

概要中的例子数据不可多用,用一两个说明问题即可。如:

Lobbyists(政治说客)arehirdebyco-operations,labour-unions,

individuals,andspecialinterests.写成概要不妨这样:Lobbyistsarehiredbyspecialinterestslikeco-operations.

出版社,1994.

[2] 周学艺.英美报刊文章选读(精选本)[M].北京:北京

大学出版社,1994.

OnTechniquesofWritinganEnglishSummary

ZHAOJin-dong

(DepartmentofEnglish,HengshuiNormalCollege,Hengshui,Hebei053000,China)

Abstract:Thekeypointofwritingasummaryis

英文概要summary的写作

toreadandunderstandtheoriginal;anditisessentialtoworkoutapropertitleandabriefoutline.Onthebasisofthesepre-work,asummarycanbefinishedasfastaspossibleandcarefulpolishcanbemadeonit.Inaddition,ex2amples,figuresandquotationscanbeusedforabestsummary.Keywords:summary;outline;quotation

(责任编辑:许素波   中文校对:谢新栋   英文校对:李玉玲)

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