英文读写literature review范文(2600字)

发表于:2018.4.7来自:www.ttfanwen.com字数:2600 手机看范文

The influence of mining exploitation on environment and the solution of the disposal of solid waste residue

By the year of 2012, China has 8557 State-owned mining enterprises and over 200 thousands individually owned enterprises. The area of destroyed land in mining area adds up to 29 thousand km^2 and grows at the rate of 2% each year (Liao L-P, Gao.H and Yu X-J, 2012). The mining industry has scored tremendous achievements, but meanwhile it threatens the environment. Some individually owned enterprises lack the awareness of environmental protection and take no preventive measure to lower their cost. Furthermore, out-of-date equipment and poor technology cause huge waste in production, which cause serious environmental pollution.

The destruction on land resources

Strip mining and the piling of tailings and waste residue occupies and destroys large land. In china, the waste-occupied land in mining area adds up to 59 thousand km^2 and the resulting deforestation area adds up to 11 thousand km^2 (Ma X-Q, Huang B-L, 2010). Strip mining can result in the destruction of land surface and Land Subsidence and accelerate the water and soil losses. According to official statistics, by the year of 2011, in the mining area of western China, the Soil erosion area annually increases 20 km^2.

The increase of the risk of geological disaster

The construction of mining engineering can significantly change the landform in mining area. Digging to a certain depth will threaten the stability of hillside and easily induce some geological disasters, such as landslip, collapse, debris flow, surface subsidence and even earthquake (Cao F-G, 2007). For example, 4 tons of water will be drained off when 1 ton of coal is mined. The loss of groundwater exerts huge pressure on earthcrust (Gibowicz, 1999). In China, there are nearly 2000 sinkholes and the collapse area adds up to 1150 km^2. Almost 40 of the mining cities in China have Cave-in accident, which threatens the life of mine operators and cause heavy property loss, about 120 million dollars on average each year.

The influence on water resource

Deep mining engineering will influence the surface water resources and groundwater resources. Excessive groundwater extraction can cause the drop of water level, some problems on water supply and land subsidence (Auclair AD, 2008). The quality surface water will decrease and the course of river might be changed. In some drought region,the drop of groundwater level can lead to the death of land vegetation (Becker M, 2005). More seriously, huge amounts of industrial water are required to

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第二篇:The Literature Review of English Film Translation 16600字

写作期末考查:文献综述

中文题目: 英文电影翻译的文献综述 ___________________________________

英文题目: The Literature Review of

专业班级:

姓 名:

学 号:

i

The Literature Review of English Film Translation

Abstract: Film translation has become more and more important in economic and culture fields. Due to the limitation of both space and time, the traditional literal translation combined with annotation is no longer suitable for the translation of culture-loaded words in film subtitles. The present study is a target-oriented research. Attempt will be made to find out some applicable translation strategies such as substitution, omission and borrowing which can be applied to the practice of culture-loaded words in translation. This paper combines with many different ideas, materials and audience profits, and then analyzes the feature, methods, value and requirements of film translation.

Key Words: Film, Translation

1. The Introduction

Film, one of the most important mass media, is an audio-visual art. It creates images, narrates stories, and expresses feelings. Film is more direct and sensitive than any other form of art to keep pace with times. Ever since the adoption of the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world at the end of the 1970s,cultural exchanges have become increasingly prevalent and the receptors of dubbed films have greatly expanded. The popular of the film also made film translation become important. In order to let films serve audience well, this paper analyzes many materials in film translation field.

Generally speaking, film translation can divided into three types: film title translation, film subtitle translation and film dubbing translation.

2. Film Title Translation

Film title translation is a special and significant part of films, film titles are far from being explored and there is a relative paucity of writings on film title translation. Film title translation is important and creative work. An excellent version may contribute a lot to the charm of the film and plays an important part in the introduction of a new film. Film title translation should not only be faithful to the original, but also cater to their aesthetic taste of the target language spectators and satisfy their psychological needs.

Over the past decades of reform and opening up to the outside world, with China's more frequent cultural, economic and political exchange, foreign movies have

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entered the China's market and have held a very important position in Chinese people's entertainment life. Therefore, the topic of translating English film titles is especially meaningful, worth exploration and with no doubt, challenging.

2.1 The Feature of Film Title

According to He Ying, film title translation basically based on features of film title.

2.1.1 The Origin

To utilize the understanding of the language situation of original film, will comprehend the origin of the film. That is the precondition for correct translation of titles. Particularly, the origins of English film tile divided into several parts: the genres, the background, the theme, the leading character and clues.

2.1.2 The Style

The movie title style is concise and clear; has simple structure (especially noun cluster); is vivid and good at using metaphor.

2.1.3 The Function

Movie titles have four functions. First is the information dissemination function. Namely, to make film content prominent and help audience to understand the original film better. Second is the expressive function. To lay film emotional tone, place the audience in the midst of this kind of atmosphere. Third is the aesthetic function. In other words, using beautiful flowing language to move the audience and create the pleasure of aesthetic. The last one is advertising function. In order to attractive more audience and increase box office.

2.1.4 The Category

There are basically three kinds of films: the documentary, science and educational films and feature films.

2.2 The Methods of Film Title Translation

American famous expert of translation theory Eugene Nida said “Since no two languages are identical, it stands to reason that there can be no absolute correspondence between languages. Hence there can be no full exact translation may be reasonably close to the original but there can be no identity in detail”. Next, I’d like to state some methods for translating English film title.

In He Ying, Zhang Laite, Xie Min and Le Fuzuo’s studies, they pointed out three methods.

2.2.1 Literal Translation

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The literal translation is in the situation of condition permission, maintains both the original content and form. In each language, there are parts of words that can find the corresponding meaning in other foreign languages.

For examples:

Roman Holidays 《罗马假日》

Air Force One 《空军一号》

Princess Diaries 《公主日记》

Lion King 《狮子王》

Brave Heart 《勇敢的心》

Casablanca 《卡萨布兰卡》

2.2.2 Transliteration

Transliteration is the simplest and most convenient translating methods. According to the pronunciation rules of the original language, and then translate it into a similar pronunciation in other foreign languages.

For example:

Jane Eyre 《简·爱》

Titanic 《泰坦尼克号》

Harry Potter 《哈利·波特》

Troy 《特洛伊》

Romeo and Juliet 《罗密欧与茱丽叶》

Although transliteration is simple and convenient, the key characteristic, place and thing that involved in the film must be familiar with or have high cultural value. Otherwise, the title can hardly attract audience’s attention.

2.2.3 Free Translation

The East and West have many differences in languages, culture, social background and customs. Sometimes, direct translation can not reflect the content of the film; we need to use free translation.

Xie Min(2010) took Gone With the Wind as an example. Gone With the Wind is a literary work which we are very familiar with. Its Chinese name is 《飘》, that’s a kind of literal translation. But as a movie we can’t use this name, for that it can’t indicate the content at all. So movie name in China is 《乱世佳人》. This kind of free translation lets audience know the background and hero better.

2.2.4 Domestication and Foreignization

Based on Zhang Pei’s study (2011), she has pointer out that domestication and

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foreignization offer a solution for translators. These two methods have differences but also rely on each other.

According to Jiang Meihong (2011), movies have a distinct feature of mass culture. Naturally the translation of the titles should aim at the target market and cater to the mainstream ideology. Domestication highlights the narrowing of the distance with the target audience while foreignization purposefully keeps a certain distance from the mainstream ideology so as to attract the audience.

2.3 Rhetoric Feature

Rhetoric is based on the theme sight and then uses various methods to improve the effect of language expression. (Chen Wenlong & Wan Shichang, 2008) The following examples are the most excellent title translations of rhetoric.

Waterloo Bridge 《魂断蓝桥》

The Bathing Beauty 《出水芙蓉》

My Fair Lady 《窈窕淑女》

The Wizard of Oz 《绿野仙踪》

It shows that there are probably six rhetoric features based on Zhang Laite(2010) such as pun, allusion, four-character expression, hyperbole, rhyme(Outland 《天外天》、 Singing in the Rain 《雨中曲》 they all full of Chinese rhythmic beauty), and idiomatic expression.

2.4 The Value

During the process of translating film title, He Ying(2001) thought there were four basic points. They are information value, culture value, aesthetic value and business value. Based on these four points, the translation would become popular. Later, Wang Yu(2010) completed her opinion by adding the fifth value, entertainment value.

2.5 The Requirements

The paper wrote by Long Qianhong(2003) has discussed the requirements that a translated film title should meet. It is suggested that an appropriate translation should meet the following three requirements: 1) It should be faithful to the original film in terms of content, theme and style; 2) It should be concise and comprehensive and easy to remember; 3) It should conform to the norms of the Chinese language and cater to the tastes of Chinese viewers.

3. Film Subtitle Translation

The subtitle will send audience to original city of the film. According to Han Jing

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(2010), many audiences rely on subtitle while they are watching an English film. Subtitle stays as a most effective cross-cultural and cross-language communication way. Actually, movie with subtitle brings the original English film to audience.

3.1 Cultural Image

The differences of culture in the East and West caused some misunderstandings of cultural image. We need to take some measures to solve the problem.

3.1.1 The Foreignization Rule

Me Xiaoying (2009), based on the results of both his and other researchers, summarized the rules of foreignization: 1)add the culture image, take “Number Ten Downing Street” for an example, this place is a common sense for English audience, but our Chinese people aren’t very familiar with it. At this place, we need to translate it into “英国首相府邸——唐宁街10号” ; 2)complete the culture image.

3.1.2 Reconstruction, Modification and Nonequivalence

Chai Meiping (2001) pointed out that the reconstruction of film subtitle translation could effectively attract audience. What’s more the modification of cultural image could spread the emotion to audience in the limited time.

The paper of Peng Mingzhao (2008) showed that The difference between Eastern and Western culture leads to be unequal in some cultural phenomena. If we take a method of the direct translation,we may not be approved by our audience. So we need to reorganize, polish and change the culture image when translating.

3.2 The Limitations

According to Han Jing (2010), there are approximately three main limitations in subtitle translation. 1) The time limitation. Subtitle is able to transform the speaking words into reading form. And the thing that bothered translator a lot is that the speed of speaking is faster than the speed of reading. 2) The space. On each image, the subtitle could not overpass two lines or it will influence the eye sight of audience. And the words of each line are limited by the screen. 3) No comment tools.

In addition, we still need to pay attention on the creative condensing: be sure of the key information in original film and keep this information in subtitle translation.

3.3 Translation of Culture-loaded Words

According to Li Xiaoyan (2010), three principles should be followed when translating culture-loaded words: 1) the reproduction of the meaning of a source-language (SL) word takes precedence of the reproduction of the form; 2) the context must be considered when choosing a word; 3) the important connotative

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meaning of a SL word should be changed into a non-connotative one in the translation. We all know that due to the constraint of both time and space, a literal translation combined with annotation of culture-loaded words makes the target-language (TL) audience confused and have difficulty understanding. Therefore, based on the above-mentioned principles, in order to make the viewers better appreciate the film and achieve the communicative efficiency, some other translation strategies including substitution, omission and borrowing must be applied.

We should also pay attention on proper noun in subtitle. The proper noun in English film can divided commonly into human name, place name and generic term. (Li Fang, 2009)

3.4 The Translation of Vulgar Words

Movie reflects the real life, so it’s common to use vulgar English. Considering the acceptance of Chinese audience, the vulgar words don’t often be directly translated. (Li Fang, 2009)

But Liu Baiyu (2006) held different idea. Free translation can not spread the original meaning that the film wants to show people. And people would have misunderstandings of characteristics of hero. In the past time, people used member of the oldest profession(最古老的职业成员) to replace prostitute(妓女); used she is easy(她很随和) to replace she is a tramp(她水性杨花); used love child(爱情之子) to replace bastard(杂种). Absolutely, this kind of implied expression didn’t meet the original film.

Liu Baiyu also pointed out that we can’t neglect the vulgar words, the best way to translate them is the direct translation. For examples:

Ass! 傻瓜!笨蛋!

Bastard! 杂种!下流胚!

Bitch! 裱子!

Damn! 他妈的!

Fuck! 操!

Hell! 该死!

Be off! 滚开!

Shut up! 闭嘴!

Go to hell! 去死吧!

To sum up, film subtitle translation is not a process in the light of rules and strategies. Not only to get rid of restrict of original film, but also to develop the

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superior of target language, thus contributing to the expansion of cultural communication and film market.

4. Film Dubbing Translation

Film dubbing translation is the main translation form that our nation imports foreign films.

4.1 The Use of Network Language

In 21st century, with the popularization of web, the network language becomes a special spoken language. Using network language during dubbing translation could bring in unexpected humorous effect. (Xu Jiaqun, 2011)

For example:

It s not like she is got any younger.

“你们不想让她成为剩女吧!”

If we translate this sentence directly “她的青春可等不及喔!”. It is hard to express the emotion of the speaker.

4.2 The Use of Chinese Slangs

Using Chinese slangs will make the conversation more like two friends’ chatting together. Here is the example:

Well, I will see who is the man in your family.

“这回我知道你们家谁说了算了。”

Slangs can narrow the distance between the film and the audience.

4.3 The Use of Popular Vocabulary

Movie as culture merchandise, it’s necessary to cater to the acceptance of audience. And the popular vocabulary appropriates the level and demands of audience; it’s easy to be accepted.

For examples:

1. Now let’s see your war face.

“快装狠给我看。”

2. I’ll get that arrow pretty boy.

“我去拿回来,小白脸。”

3. Punch him; it’s how men say hello.

“扁他,男人都这样打招呼。”

4. Whach’ you mean loser?

“你说我很衰?”

During the process of dubbing translation, the actors who voice the characters

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should know how to express the original characteristics of the film roles.

5. The Conclusion

In some sense, a successful film should be the one that can attract people to cinema and should become a great box-office hit. Therefore, the translator should bear the implied audience in mind and take their horizon of expectation and receptivity into full consideration whenever he sets his pen to paper.

Film translation plays an important role in helping people from others countries know about how foreign people perceive the world and behave themselves.

All in all, film translation is not to simply and mechanically copy the original content and form, but to recreate on the basis of feature, methods, value, requirements, rhetoric and function of film translation.

Reference

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[16]么孝颖. 电影翻译中文化意象处理的异化原则 [J]. 时代文学(下半月), 2009, (09): 122-123.

[17]柴梅萍. 电影翻译中文化意象的重构、修润与转换 [J]. 苏州大学学报, 2001, (04): 91-94.

[18]彭明昭. 电影翻译中文化意象的重构、修润与转换 [J]. 外语教育, 2008, (00): 154-158.

[19]王亚男, 吉哲民. 电影字幕的文化翻译 [J]. 重庆广播电视大学学报, 2011,(02): 56-59.

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[21]李小艳. 电影字幕中文化负载词的翻译研究 [J]. 海外英语, 2010, (09): 150-151.

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[26]梁静璧. 电影字幕翻译的娱乐化倾向——迪士尼电影《花木兰》的个案研究 [J]. 北京教育学院学报, 2006, (01): 19-23.

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[28]吴琼. 电影类型: 作为惯例和经验的系统 [J]. 北京电影学院学报, 2004(6).

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