英语翻译实践心得(1000字)

发表于:2018.4.21来自:www.ttfanwen.com字数:1000 手机看范文

专业英语文献翻译实践心得

专业英语文献终于翻译完了,总共花费了我若干了午休时间和一下午的时间,总的来说收获还是很大的。作为英语弱势群体的我来说,能坚持翻译完这将近3000字的英文已经不错了,下面我将具体来讲讲翻译过程中的感受。 首先对于英语有了一个不一样的认识,以前觉得学英语特别难,看到大段大段的英语更是头痛,而专业英语就更不用说了因为不仅有复杂句式、语法,还有大量的专业词汇。对于这次专业英语文献翻译也是硬着头皮上的,刚开始时翻译特别艰难,句式看不太懂,然后专业词汇很多,于是只好一个一个去查,所以刚开始时翻译的特别慢,这样坚持下来到了第二段以后时,发现还是那几个专业词汇,偶尔出现一个新的,虽然语法、复杂句式还是有,可还是能发现其中的规律,于是慢慢的坚持下来,速度也上来了,也没那么抗拒了,把那种长难句翻译出来也发现,哦,其实也就那样,并不是说难,而是没掌握其中的规律。

接下来我想谈谈自己翻译过程中用到的一些方法、技巧以及遇到的一些问题。说到方法,首先要谢谢这门课程还有我们的老师,所有的翻译方法课堂上都讲到了,包括直译法、意译法、增译法、减译法、重组法等。或许在翻译中你没意识到用了什么方法,就翻译过去了,其实就是说虽然英语很菜,但还是有一些基础的。等回去标注翻译方法时才恍然大悟原来自己是用了这种翻译方法。虽然说方法都会了,专业词汇也能查到,但是还是遇到了一些问题,比如,中西文化的差异,在翻译过程中,即使每个单词都认识,句式也做了调整,可是翻译出来就能感觉跟原文还是有很大差异,你不能很准确的表达出原文作者的意思。还有就是翻译过程中对于一些专业名词翻译还不是很到位,比如“劫金”,这是矿物加工的专业词汇,在词典中无法找到英文对应的单词,因此很多学者写论文时直接用一个短语或一句话来表示,但翻译过程中我们就应该翻译成“劫金”,如果也翻译成一句话或短语就失去了论文原有的味道。

再来说说我们翻译应达到的一个要求,清末新兴资产阶级启蒙思想家严复提出翻译要达到“信、达、雅”,“信”指意义不背原文,即是译文要准确,不歪曲,不遗漏,也不要随意增减意思;“达”指不拘泥于原文形式,译文通顺明白;“雅”则指译文时选用的词语要得体,追求文章本身的古雅,简明优雅。而对于初学翻译的我们来说我觉得就是先做到了“信、达”,简单说尊重原文作者的意思,不歪曲,然后翻译过来不生涩,符合中国人的阅读习惯。最后等自己有翻译经验后再去追求“雅”。

最后感谢专业英语科技翻译这门课程和我们的老师,让自己对于专业英语的阅读、翻译有了一个开始!




第二篇:英语翻译实践讲义 69900字

翻译实践?

LECTURE?1?

INTRODUCTION?

1.?Translation?&?language?learning?

Can?you?see?what?is?wrong?with?the?translation??

1.?He?is?easily?the?best?student?in?the?class.?

他很容易地成了班上最好的学生。?

2.?The?stranger?robbed?his?wife.?

那个陌生人抢了他的妻子。?

3.?I?can’t?agree?more.?

我不能同意更多了。?

4.?I?won’t?do?it?to?save?my?life.?

为了救自己的命,我不会干。?

5.?I?dare?say?he?is?honest.?

我敢说他是诚实的。

她没有出席开幕式,这件事并没有使人感到意外。?

1.She?didn’t?(failed?to)?come?to/?turn?up?at/?wasn’t?present?at?the?opening?ceremony.?This?thing/?matter?caused?no?surprise/?surprised?nobody.?

2.?(The?fact)?that?…caused?no?surprise.?

3.?She?didn’t?…,?but?/and?this?caused?….?

4.?It?caused?no?surprise/?It?was?not?surprising?that?she?….?

5.?As?was?expected,?she?…?

2.?Definition?of?translation?

Translating?is?the?art?of?recomposing?a?work?in?another?language?without?losing?its?original?flavor.?

——Columbia?Encyclopedia?

翻译的性质:

是一种艺术,而非科学。

艺术表现个性,因人而异;

科学表现共性,不容变动。?

To?translate?is?to?change?into?another?language,?retaining?as?much?of?the?sense?as?one?can.?

Samuel?Johnson?(1709?1784)?

美国著名的翻译理论家尤金?奈达对翻译的定义:?

Translating?consists?in?reproducing?in?the?receptor?language?the?closest?natural?equivalent?of?the?source?language?message,?first?in?terms?of?meaning,?and?secondly?in?terms?of?style.?

翻译就是在译语中用最为贴切自然的等语再现原语的信息——首先是就意义而言,其次是就风 格而言。

所有关于翻译的定义的共同点

l 翻译这一语言活动涉及两种不同的语言,即原文语言(source?language)?与译文语言(target?language)。

l 翻译的目的是实现这两种语言之间意义的对应转换, 即将SL表达的信息通过TL加以传递。 l 在实现这种语际意义对应转换中,要做到完整准确、不折不扣。?

Cambridge?Encyclopedia?of?Language?

It?is?sometimes?said?that?there?is?no?task?more?complex?than?translation—?a?claim?that?can?be?readily

believed?when?all?the?variables?involved?are?taken?into?account.?Translators?not?only?need?to?know?their?source?language?well??they?must?also?have?a?thorough?understanding?of?the?field?of?knowledge?covered?by?the?source?text,?and?of?any?social,?cultural,?or?emotional?connotations?that?need?to?be?specified?in?the?target?language?if?the?intended?effect?is?to?be?conveyed.?The?same?special?awareness?needs?to?be?present?for?the?target?language,?so?that?points?of?special?phrasing,?local?expectations,?and?so?on,?can?all?be?taken?into?account.?

3.?Scope?of?translation?

In?terms?of?languages?按所涉及的语言:Native?languages??????foreign?languages?

Of?mode?按工作方式:Oral?interpretation,?written?translation,?machine?translation?

Of?materials?to?be?translated?按翻译材料:?

Scientific?materials,?literary?works,?political?essays?政论作品,?practical?writing?应用文?

Of?disposal?按具体的处理方式:?

Full?text?translation?全文翻译,?abridged?translation?摘译,?adapted?translation?编译?

4.?Requirements?ofa?qualified?translator?

4.1?外文水平高

l?Just?imagine?(it).?

l?I’ll?buy?it.?

l?You’re?telling?me.?

4.2?中文水平高

l 不少人认为“信达雅”是严复的戛戛独造,并奉之为译事圭臬。

l?Henry?Kissinger?had?sleptthere?before,?in?July?and?again?in?October.?

4.3?知识面广?——杂家

l?John?can?be?relied?on,?he?eats?no?fish?and?plays?the?game.?

l?Nintendo?will?also?remain?a?player?in?the?games?market.?This?low?market?leader?has?done?well?by?relying?on?its?own?mega?successful?characters:?Pokemon,?Mario?and?Donkey?Kong.?

4.4?政治觉悟高——用词褒贬

l?the?peasants?uprisings?in?the?history?of?China?

l?The?enemy?killed?one?of?our?comrades?and?we?killed?an?enemy?agent.?

4.5?熟悉基本的翻译技巧

前四个条件在短期内难于达到

熟悉基本的翻译技巧,在较短时间内是比较容易取得一定效果的。

??I?took?the?news?with?a?grain?of?salt.?

??He?has?many?hot?potatoes?to?handle?every?day.?

??This?seemingly?simple?question?had?her?in?a?pickle.?

5.?Brief?introduction?to?the?history?of?translation?in?China?

about?2,000?years?

5.1?Eastern?Han—N.?&?S.?Dynasties?(25—581)?

5.2?Sui?Dynasty—Tang?Dynasty?(581—907)?

5.3?The?Ming?Dynasty?(1368—1644?)?

5.4?The?Qing?Dynasty?(1644—1911?)?th?5.5After?the?May?4?Movement?of?1919?

5.1?Eastern?Han—Northern?&?Southern?Dynasties?(25—581)?

西汉哀帝时代(公元前?6?年-公元元年),有个名叫伊存的人到中国口传一些简短的佛经经句。 东汉桓帝建和二年(148?年),?

An?Shih?ko?安世高开始佛经的翻译,译《安般守意经》等30?多部佛经?

Indu?Dharmarakcha?竺法护:月氏/支人,译?175?部佛经

三支:支娄迦谶、支亮、支谦,月氏人

民间私人事业?

5.2?Sui?Dynasty—Tang?Dynasty?(581—907)?

Golden?age?of?translation?in?ancient?China?

Three?giants?in?translating?Buddhist?scripture?appeared:?

Xuan?Zang?玄奘,Kumarajiva?鸠摩罗什,aramartha?(also?called?Gunarata)?真谛 (波罗末他)?Xuan?Zang?(Tang?Dynasty)?玄奘

唐太宗贞观二年(628?年)出发去印度求经,17?年后回国。带回佛经?657?部,19?年间译出?75?部佛经,共?1335?卷。

提出“既须求真,又须喻俗”,即“忠实、通顺”的翻译标准?

organize?workshops?译场?

the?first?one?in?China?to?translate?Chinese?documents?into?Sanskrit?《道德经》?

5.3The?Ming?Dynasty?(1368—1644)

明代开始中国出现介绍西欧各国科学、文学、哲学的翻译家。

明徐光启和意大利人利玛窦?M.?Ricci合作翻译了欧几里德?Euclid?的《几何原本》Elements、《测 量法义》等书。?

5.4The?Qing?Dynasty?(1644—1911?)?

林纾(琴南)译?160?多部文学作品

《巴黎茶花女遗事》(Camille?) , 《黑奴吁天录》(Uncle?Tom’s?Cabin)?

《块肉余生述》?(David?Copperfield), 《王子复仇记》(Hamlet)?

严复(又陵)及其译著

《天演论》(Evolution?and?Ethics?and?Other?Essays?by?T.H.?Huxley?赫胥黎)?

《原富》(Inquiry?into?the?Nature?and?Causes?of?the?Wealth?of?Nations?by?A.?Smith?亚当?斯密)?《群学肄言》?(Study?of?Sociology?H.?Spencer?斯宾塞)?

《群己权界论》(On?Liberty?J.S.Miller?穆勒?)?

5.5?“五四”?之后我国的翻译事业的发展

开始介绍马列主义经典著作和无产阶级文学作品。

白话文代替了文言文

陈望道《共产党宣言》Manifesto?of?the?Communist?Party?

鲁迅《毁灭》《死魂灵》

瞿秋白?

6.?Criteria?of?Translation?

The?most?popular?&?acclaimed?criterion—three?characters?

严复(1854?1921)的信达雅理论

信?faithfulness?达?expressiveness?雅?elegance/?refinement?

傅雷:传神?

The?purpose?of?translation?is?to?“achieve?the?‘spirit’?of?the?original”.?

以效果而论,翻译应当像临画一样,所求的不在形似,而是神似。?(1951,?《高老头——重 译本序》)?

林语堂在1933?年的《论翻译》一文中提出了三条标准:

忠实标准 通顺标准 美的标准

钱钟书:化境?

put?forward?the?idea?of?“Conversion”,?which?aimed?at?“perfection”?

“文学翻译的最高理想可以说是‘化’ 。把作品从一国文字转变成另一国文字,既不能因语文 习惯的差异而露出生硬牵强的痕迹,又能完全保存原作的风味,那就算得入于‘化境’ 。 ”

用这些标准评判一下下面的翻译,如何改进?

??“I?kep?it?from?her?arter?I?heard?on?it,”?said?Mr.Peggotty,?“going?on?nigh?a?year.?We?was?living?then?

in?a?solitary?place,?but?among?the?beautifullest?trees,?and?with?the?roses?a?covering?our?Bein’?to?the?roof…”?

“我听到那消息以后,”?辟果提先生说道,“瞒了她差不多一年。我们当时住在一个僻静的地 方。周围有十分美丽的树,屋顶上有蔷薇花?……”?

??It?is?now?thought?that?the?more?work?we?give?our?brains,?the?more?work?they?are?able?to?do.?

现在被认为,我们给脑子的工作越多,它们能干的工作就越多。

??Rubber?is?not?hard??it?gives?way?to?pressure.?

橡胶不硬,它给压力让路。?

7.?Literal?translation?&?liberal?translation?

直译?Literal?translation?Word?for?word?translation?

意译?liberal?translation?free?translation?

Translating?is?the?translating?of?meaning.?

Actually,?all?translation?is?in?this?sense?意译。?

Successful?literal?translation?adopted?as?idiomatic?Chinese?expressions?

Crocodile?tears?

Be?armed?to?the?teeth?

chain?reaction?

gentleman’s?agreement?

Some?Chinese?idioms?also?find?their?English?counterparts?through?literal?translation.?

纸老虎

一国两制?

Free?translation:?alternative?approach?

Adam’s?apple?

at?sixes?and?sevens?

It?rains?cats?and?dogs.?

Don’t?cross?the?bridge?till?you?getto?it。?

Do?you?see?any?green?in?my?eye??

?Literal?and?liberal?are?relative?concepts.?There?is?no?absolute?literal,?nor?entirely?free?translation?in?the?practice?of?translation.?

1.?“It’s?an?order?from?President?Bush.”?“I?don’t?care?if?it?is?from?bush,?tree,?or?grass.”?

Version?A:?“这是布什总统的命令。”“我不在意它来自灌木、树,还是草。”?

Version?B:?……“我才不在乎它来自布什、树木,还是草呢。”?

Version?C:?……“管它什么布什、布头,还是布片呢,与我无关。”?

2.?But?Diana’s?champions?were?overwhelmingly?women.?Like?many?of?them,?she?had?a?heartless?husband,?in?laws?from?hell,?and?fickle?boyfriends.?

Version?A:?可是戴安娜的冠军绝大多数是妇女。像她们中的许多,她有一个无情的丈夫,来自 地狱的姻亲,感情易变的男朋友。?

Version?B:?可是戴安娜的拥护者绝大多数是妇女。和她们中的很多人一样,她有个无情无义的 丈夫,地狱般的姻亲,见异思迁的男朋友。?

Version?C:?可是戴安娜的拥护者绝大多数是妇女。因为她的遭遇和她们中的许多人相似:丈夫 无情无义,婆家人蛮不讲理,男友个个负心。

英汉语言对比

一、英汉词汇现象的对比

英语中存在大量一词多义现象,其词义比较灵活,词义范围较宽,词义在较大程度上取决于特定的上下文;而 且英语词汇的发展促使其词义变得更加灵活,涵义范围变得愈加宽广。

相比之下,汉语的词义比较严谨固定,涵义范围较窄,词义对上下文的依赖程度比较小。

因此,需要针对两种语言词义上的不同点,灵活地运用相应地翻译技巧。?

1.1英汉词义对比?

1、英语中有些词所表示的意义,在汉语中可以找到完全对应的词来表达。它们的意义在任何上下文中都完全相等。

这主要是一些已有通用译名的专用名词、术语和日常生活中的一些事物的名称。

例:?The?United?Nations?The?Pacific?Ocean?helicopter?????minibus????equator???taxi?

2、英语中词的概念或涵义范围比相应的汉语词宽泛。

例1:?cousin??>?表兄弟?queen?>?皇后?school??>?学校?stand??>?站、立

例2:正如以下各例所示,school在许多情况下并不能译成“学校”:?

1)?There?will?be?noschooltomorrow.?

2)?The?head?teacher?gave?a?talk?to?theschoolat?assembly.?

3)?Susan?works?at?theSchoolof?African?and?Asian?Studies.?

4)?How?do?you?like?the?one?dayschoolsthat?we?run?for?teachers??

5)?The?scholar?doesn’t?belong?to?the?Kantianschool.?

6)?The?professor?waswellschooledin?foreign?languages.?

例3:试用stand翻译下列各句:?

1)?这儿曾经有一棵高大的白杨树。?

2)?那所房子闲置了好几个月了。?

3)?那个钟上的时间是7点50分。?

4)?这座市立图书馆将一直使用到下个世纪。?

5)?汤姆将因盗窃罪而受审。?

3、英语词的概念或使用范围比相应的汉语词狭窄?

eat?<?吃,open?<?开,say?<?说,university?<?大学

以其中的eat一词为例,词典上提供的汉语释义通常为“吃”。但eat一般仅限于吃食物之类的东西,而汉语中的“吃”?的许多其他用法往往都不能译作eat,这正如下列例子所示:

吃药 吃后悔药 吃惊

吃苦 吃亏 吃老本

吃香?

4、英语词的概念或使用范围既比相应的汉语词的概念或使用范围宽广又比其狭窄

英汉词义的这种关系非常普遍,也更加难以处理。如:?

home——?家、?state——国、book——书

这些词在意义上虽有重合部分,但是在外延上或使用范围上又不尽相同。

例1、下面例句中的“book”都不能译作“书”:?

1)The?company’sbooksare?audited?every?year.?

2)?He?is?to?swear?on?theBookbefore?taking?office.?

3)?The?music?was?fine,?but?thebookwas?very?poor.?

4)?Both?parties?arebrought?to?bookover?the?information?leak.?

相反,以下例句中的“书”也不能译作“book”:?

1)?书不尽言。?

2)?她家世代书香。

3)?家书抵万金。

例2、“做”是“make”的最基本词义之一,但在其数十种用法中,多数却都不能译作“做”。这里仅举几例:?

1)Hemadehimself?a?cup?of?tea.?

2)?What?you?said?just?now?does?notmakesense.?

3)?Shemakesher?living?as?a?designer.?

4)?Cultural?exchangemakesfor?better?understanding.?

5)?They’ll?probablymakethe?front?pages?ofall?the?papers?tomorrow.?

相反,类似以下例句中的“做”亦往往无法译为“make”:?

1)?这次我做东。?

2)?我们正在做前人从来没有做过的伟大事业。?

3)?他们推三阻四,正好暴露了他们做贼心虚。?

5、英语中有些词所要表示的意义,目前在汉语里还找不到最后确定的对应词来表达。这主要事英语中的一些新词, 包括专用名词、术语以及一些反映英美社会特殊风气及事物的词。

例:?mascon?(mass?concentration)?overkill?plumber?

1.2?词的搭配能力对比

英语和汉语在词的搭配能力方面往往有差异。?

to?cut?wheat,?to?cut?cake,?to?cut?finger?nails?

例1、He?wore?dark?glasses,?and?thick?jersey,?and?stopped?up?his?ears?with?cotton?wool.?

例2、Some?Americans?pop?across?the?border?simply?to?fuel?up?on?flavorful?Mexican?foodand?beer.?

1.3?词序对比

英、汉语句子中主要成分主语、谓语动词、宾语或表语的词序基本上是一致的。但是各种定语的位置和各种状 语的次序在英、汉语中则有同有异,变化较多,所以英、汉词序的比较,主要是指定语、状语位置异同的比较。?

1、定语的位置

(1)单词作定语

英语中单词作定语时,通常放在它所修饰的名词前面,汉语中定语的位置也大体如此。有时英语中也后置的, 但在汉语里一般都前置。?

a?research?orientedhospital?(前置)?

somethingimportant?(后置)?

the?banker’s?littlegarden?(前置)?

如果原文中名词前的定语过多,译文中则不宜完全前置,因为汉语不习惯在名词前面用过多的定语,尤其是在口语 里。

例:alittle,yellow,?ragged,?lame,?unshavenbeggar?

(2)短语作定语

英语中修饰名词的短语一般放在名词之后,汉语里则放在被修饰的名词之前,但间或也有放在后面的,视汉语习惯 而定。?

a?candidate?with?little?chance?of?success?

2、状语的位置

(1)单词作状语

① 英语中单词状语修饰形容词或其它状语时,常放在它所修饰的形容词或状语的前面,这一点与汉语相同。?John?did?not?distinguish?himself?as?a?student,?but?he?was?very?active?in?class.?(前置)

② 英语中单词状语修饰动词时,一般放在动词之后,而在汉语里则一般放在动词之前。?

Modern?science?and?technology?are?developing?rapidly.?(后置)

③ 英语中表示程度的状语在修饰状语时可前置也可后置,而在汉语中一般都前置。?

The?molecules?of?a?gas?are?moving?aboutextremelyfast?in?all?direction.(前置)?

He?is?running?fastenough.??(后置)

(2)短语作状语

① 英语中短语状语可放在被修饰的动词之前或后,译成汉语时,大多数放在被修饰的动词之前,但也有放在后 面的,视汉语的习惯而定。

例1:Then?with?a?bag?of?toys?and?bookswe?walked?across?the?garden?in?the?gray?light?of?the?dawn.(前置)?

例2:A?jeep,?full,?sped?fast,?drenching?me?in?spray.?????????(后置)

② 英语中地点短语状语一般在时间状语之前,而在汉语中时间状语往往在地点状语之前,如:?

He?was?born?in?Furth?on?May?27,1923.?(地点在前)

英语中时间短语状语之间的排列一般都是从小到大,而在汉语中一般都是从大到小,如:?

th?at?eleven?minutes?past?1?A.M.?on?the?16?of?October,?1946?钟点——日——月——年

一九四六年十月十六日凌晨一点十一分 年——月——日——钟点

英语中地点短语状语之间的排列一般也都是从小到大,而在汉语中一般也都是从大到小,如:?

I?was?born?in?Burdine,?Kentucky,?in?the?heart?of?the?Appalachian?coal?mining?country.?(小——大)

我出生于阿帕拉契山脉煤矿区中心的肯塔基州柏定市。(大——小)?

二、英汉句法现象的对比

句子能够表达一个相对完整的意思,是人们使用语言交流信息、沟通思想的基本语言单位。

因此,翻译界一般将句子看作最重要的翻译单位。英汉互译涉及到英语和汉语间语码的相互转换。

为了逐步掌握这种转换的规律,培养较强的英汉互译技能,必须对英汉两种语言在句子结构方面的异同有所了解。 虽然英汉句法结构中有类似的地方,但是汉语复句与对应的英语复句又有一些明显的不同:?

1、英语复句一般要由连词连接,汉语因重意合,许多复句经常无需使用连接词语,试比较:?

1)?那位政客不诚实,人们不信任他。?

2)?前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。?

2、英语复合句中分句的句序相对比较灵活,表示条件、让步、原因等的状语从句出现在主句之前或之后均可;

而汉语复句中分句的句序较为固定,一般按照由先到后的时间顺序和由因到果、由假设到论证、由让步到推论 的逻辑关系排列。例如:?

1)?趁我还没有忘记,我这就把这事办了。?

2)?由于很多人缺席,会议只得延期。?

3)?要是费用有人代付,我就出席专题报告会。

翻译技巧?1?

Repetition?

重复法:在译文中适当地重复原文中出现过的词语,以使意思表达得更加清楚;或者进一步加 强语气,突出强调某些内容,收到更好的修辞效果。?

1.?为了明确?

1.1?重复名词?

We?have?to?analyse?and?solveproblems.?

1.2?重复动词?

The?blow?hurt?not?only?his?hands?but?his?shoulder?too.?

We?talked?of?ourselves,?of?our?prospects,?of?the?journey,?of?this?weather,?of?each?other—of?everything?but?our?host?and?hostess.?

1.3?重复代词

重复代词所代替的名词

例?1:Jesse?opened?his?eyes.They?were?filled?with?tears.?

例2:In?China,?they?“made?mistakes”,?suffered?by?them,?acknowledged?and?studied?them,?thus?planned??

victory.

重复作代词主语的名词

英语中用物主代词?its,?his,?their?等等以代替句中作主语的名词时,翻译中往往可以不用代词而 重复其作主语的名词,以达到明确具体的目的。

例?1:Happy?families?are?all?alike,?every?unhappy?family?is?unhappy?in?its?own?way.?

Big?powers?havetheir?strategies?while?small?countries?also?havetheir?own?lines.?

重复强势关系代词或关系副词

例?1:?Whoeverviolates?the?law?should?be?punished.?

1.4?内容上的重复

为了使译文明确具体,除了以上的重复方法外,还有一种情况:英语原文没有重复,汉译时采 用一种在内容上而不是形式上的重复的手段。

例?1:?He?wanted?to?send?them?more?aid,?more?weapons?and?a?few?more?men.?

例?2:?There?had?been?no?radio,?TV,?or?press?mention?ofeither?his?arrest?or?conviction.?

2.?为了强调?

2.1?为了强调,英语句子中往往重复关键性的词,以使读者留下深刻的印象,英译汉时往往可 以采取同样的重复手段。

例?1:He?wandered?about?in?the?chill?rain,?thinking?and?thinking,brooding?andbrooding.?

英语对仗句的前后两部分中往往有词的重复,译成汉语时对仗句一般可以保持同样的重复。 对仗重复?

An?eye?for?an?eye,a?tooth?for?a?tooth?

Out?of?sight,?out?of?mind.

2.2?英语原文中有词的重复,译成汉语有时可以用同义词重复。?

“I?know?you?hate?me?and?Ihate?you,?we?had?better?part?right?now.”?

3.?为了生动

英语原文中即使没有词的重复,翻译时为了使译文生动,有时也可以采用下列各种重复手段: 运用两个四字词组;运用词的重迭;运用四字对偶词组。?

3.1?运用两个四字词组

汉语中四字词组广泛存在。四字词组比较精炼,念起来顺口,有节奏感,如运用恰当,可 使文字生动活泼,增强修辞效果。为了使译文符合忠实、通顺的标准,译者有时可以酌情 运用两个同义或近义的四字词组,这也可以说是一种重复。

例?1:But?there?had?been?too?much?publicity?about?my?case.?

例?2.?The?questions?were?evidently?unexpected?to?the?slow?witted?spokesman,?who?instantly?found?himself?tongue?tied.?

3.2?运用词的重迭

词的重迭是汉语中常用的一种修辞手段,古代诗词中有很多这类例子,如:?“寻寻觅觅,冷冷 清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚”?。在散文中也很常见,如“清楚”往往说成“清清楚楚”?。英译汉时,我们 可以适当采用词的重迭,特别是四字重迭词组,使译文生动活泼,通顺达意。

例?1:I?had?been?completelyhonest?in?my?replies,?withholding?nothing.?

例?2:His?children,?too,?wereragged?and?wild?as?if?they?belonged?to?nobody.?

例?3:The?toasts?were?flat.?

3.3?运用四字对偶词组

汉语中有不少四字对偶词组,在这个四字中前后两对字形成对偶,往往具有相同或类似的含义, 所以也是一种重复。英译汉时我们可酌情采用此类对偶四字词组,使译文显得生动活泼。 例?1:If?this?was?a?time?oftriumph?for?the?many,?it?was?apainfulperiod?for?the?few.?

例?2:great?contributions?

gratitude?

ingratitude?

prosperity?

vivid?

例?3:She?is?an?awful?fool?of?a?woman.?

例?4:She?loved?giving?orders?to?the?servants?and?they?loved?obeying?her

翻译技巧 2 省略法

省略法:指原文中有些词在译文中不译出来,因为译文中虽无其词而已有其意,或者在译文中 是不言而喻的。

应遵循的原则:减词不减意

一、从语法角度进行省略?

1.1?冠词的省略

例?1:?The?proton?has?a?positive?charge?and?the?electron?a?negative?charge,?but?the?neutron?has?neither.?

例?2:A?camel?is?much?inferior?to?an?elephant?in?strength.?

1.2?代词的省略

① 人称代词的省略?

a.?英语中通常每句都有主语,因此人称代词作主语往往多次出现,这种人称代词汉译时常 常可以省略。

例?1:?Whether?the?laws?are?good?or?bad,?they?cannot?complain,?they?cannot?question,?they?

cannot?suggest?changes.?

例?2:?But?it’s?the?way?I?am,?and?try?as?I?might,?Ihaven’t?been?able?to?change?it.?

b.?泛指的英语人称代词作主语时,即使是作第一个主语,译文中往往也可以省略。 例?1:?We?live?and?learn.?

例?2:?Gas?leakage?will?cause?a?fire,?henceyou?have?to?take?care.?

②反身代词的省略

例?1:?How?do?atoms?arrangethemselves?in?a?solid??

1.3?it的省略

① 非人称代词?it的省略

非人称代词?it?在句中作主语时实际上是个虚词,并不指代上下文中具体的事物,一般用于 表示自然现象、时间、距离、环境及一般情况等。汉译时,常将这一非人称代词?it?省略, 作为无主句。

例?1:?Outside?it?was?pitch?dark?and?it?was?raining?cats?and?dogs.?

例?2:?It?is?112?miles?from?London?to?Birmingham.?

②先行代词?it的省略

先行代词?it?主要作用是充当语法规则所要求的形式主语或形式宾语。它本身也是个虚词, 没有具体的词汇意义,因此汉译时往往省略。?

It?is?not?entirely?right?to?say?that?if?there?is?food,?let?everyone?share?it.?

③强调句中的?it?的省略

例:?It?was?only?then?that?I?began?to?have?doubts?whether?my?story?would?ever?be?told.?

It?is?the?U.S?that?is?distorting?and?perverting?the?“Geneva?spirit”?.?

1.4?介词的省略

①表示时间的介词经常可省略

例?1:The?space?shuttle?will?return?to?earth?on?next?Monday?as?scheduled.

②表示地点的介词常可省略

例:?Now?complaints?are?heard?in?all?parts?of?that?country.?

③其他介词的省略

例?1:?The?products?produced?by?this?factory?are?good?in?quality?and?low?in?price.?

1.5?省略连词

①省略并列连词

例?1:?He?looked?gloomy?and?troubled.?

例?2:?This?machine?has?worked?in?succession?for?seven?or?eight?hours.?

②从属连词的省略?

a.省略表示原因的连词

例?1:?We?knew?spring?was?coming?as?we?had?seen?a?robin.?

例?2:?He?declined?to?amplify?on?the?President’s?statement,?since?he?had?not?read?the?text.?b.省略表示条件的连词

例?1:?If?winter?comes,?can?spring?be?far?behind??

例?2:If?you?write?to?him,?the?response?would?be?absolute?silence?and?void.?

例?3:?“You’ve?got?to?be?careful?of?these?Eastern?lawyers.?If?you?are?not?careful,?they’ll?take?you?and?turn?you?inside?out.”?

c.?省略表示时间的连词

例:?John?rose?gloomily?as?the?train?stopped,?for?he?was?thinking?of?his?ailing?mother.?

省略其他连词?

A?wise?man?will?not?marry?a?woman?who?has?attainments?but?no?virtue.?

6、省略动词

① 一些联系动词的省略

英语中最重要的联系动词?be用作谓语时,本身并无具体的动作含义,汉译时往往省略。至 于其它联系动词,如?get,?become等,若其含义在译文中已经得到体现,也可省译。 例?1:She?is?very?fond?of?speaking?ill?of?others.?

例?2:?Newspapers,?magazines?and?broadcasts?are?subject?to?censorship?in?that?country.?

例?3:Mr.?Binley?was?good?looking?and?gentleman?like.?

②一些动词与具有动作含义的名词搭配时可省略

例?1:?The?power?plant?gives?factories?its?constant?supply?of?electricity.?

二、从修辞的角度进行省略?

2.1?同义词语的省略

英语中有时为了强调或对某一概念加以解释,经常采取同义词语连用的手法。汉译时,这

些同义词语有些可分别译出,有些则译法相同。为了避免重复,往往需要将译法相同的同 义词语省略。

例?1:?To?our?knowledge,?advertisements?and?commercials?do?many??important?things?for?society.?例?2:Electrons?revolve?about?the?nucleus,?or?center?of?an?atom.?

例?3:?Sunday?is?the?day?when?I?am?least?busy.?

2.2?英语句子中有些短语重复出现,汉译时可按情况作适当省略。

例?1:?University?applicants?who?had?worked?at?a?job?receive?preference?over?those?who?had?not.?例?2:?Instead?of?one?old?woman?knocking?me?about?and?starving?me,?everybody?of?all?ages?knocked?me?about?and?starved?me.?

2.3?根据汉语习惯省略可有可无的词

例?1:?In?twelve?Yan’?an?years?the?Chinese?Communists?had?fitted?themselves?to?the?land,?the?

rhythm?of?its?seasons,?the?mood?of?its?peasants.?

例?2:There?was?no?snow,?the?leaves?were?gone?from?the?trees,?the?grass?was?dead.

第三讲 增译法(Amplification)?

Amplification?can?be?classified?as:?

(1)?Words?supplied?for?syntactic?construction?(结构性增补)?

(2)?words?supplied?for?semantic?completion?(语义性增补)

例1.?You?got?a?prejudice?all?right?????against?a?race?that’s?black.?That’s?why?I?called?you?white?racist?that?night.?But?when?you?deal?with?a?black?person,?I?don’t?feel?any?bad?vices.?

你这个人确有偏见。 你(结构性增补)对整个(语义性增补)黑人种族抱有偏见(结构性)。那天晚上, 我说你是个白人种族主义者,道理就在这里。但是当你跟一个具体的(语义性)黑人打交道时, 我倒不(修辞性增补)觉得你有什么恶意。

例2.?其实地上本来没有路,走的人多了,也便成了路。?

For?actually?the?earth?had?no?roads?to?begin?with,but?when?many?men?pass?one?way?,?a?road?is?made.?增译法定义:

为了使译文忠实地表达原文的意思与风格并使译文合乎表达习惯,必须增加一些在修辞 上,语法结构上,语义上或语气上必不可少的词语。

一.?翻译省略成分引起的增译?

(一)翻译为避免重复而出现的省略成分的增译

例1.??Histories?make?men?wise??poets?witty??the?mathematics?subtle??natural?philosophy?deep.?例2.?She?makes?a?good?teacher,?as?shehasa?good?student.?

例3.?When?(it?is)?pure,?water?is?a?colorless?liquid.?

(二)?翻译由于英语语法规则而出现的省略成分时的增译?

We?suggest?that?the?test?(should)?be?done?by?12?o’clock.?

二.语义修辞上需要的增译?

1.?增加动词

例1.He?seized?the?chance?for?peace?between?them?.?

例2.Testing?is?a?complicated?problem,?so?be?careful.?

2.?增加名词

例1.?他的科学著作在英语国家 中得到广泛阅读。

例2.?领导人对两国关系非常关心。

英语中有许多抽象名词,这词若直译,不能给人予具体明确的含义。因此,汉译时要加上“性”,?“作用”,“反应”,“方法”,“现象”,“心理”等措词。?

tension?紧张局势?

readability?可读性?

complexity?复杂局面?

lightheartedness?轻松愉快的心境

例3.?Much?of?our?morality?is?customary.?

例4.The?doctor?will?get?morepractice?out?of?me?than?out?of?other?ordinary?patients.?

3.?增加形容词

例?Deflation?has?now?reached?unprecedented?level.?

4.?增加状语或副词

例1.?Theory?is?something?but?practice?is?everything.?

例?2.?They?lingered?long?over?his?letter.?

5.?复数名词汉译引起的增译?

(1)?增加迭词(overlapping?words)?

(2)?增加数词(numerals)或其他词

例1.?Lovers?wander?hand?in?hand,?paying?no?attention?to?the?packs?of?children.?

例2.?Likewise,?we?can?not?use?one?prescription?for?all?ills.?

例3.?After?a?series?of?experiments?important6.?增加量词

例1.?There?stands?a?high?building?by?the?river.?

例2.?I?was?extremely?worried?about?her,?but?this?was?neither?the?place?nor?the?time?for?a?lectureor?an?argument.?

7.?增加代词

英语中广泛使用代词,来避免词语的重复 出现; 而重复原词,不用代词则是汉语所特有的 一种语法手段。

例?1.?各人有各人的长处。

例2.?A?tree?drops?its?leaves?in?winter.?

例3.?没有调查就没有发言权。?

8.?增加连词?

(1)?汉译英时

在英语中,由于采用形合法,短语与短语、句与句之间多用关联词。而汉语中相当的语句采用意 合法过渡,表示逻辑关系的过渡词汇用得少。因此,汉译英时要加上关联词。

例1.?你不去我也不去。

例2.?虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。?

(2)?英译汉时

英语(尤其科技英语)中,有些句式中的因果、转折及顺理连接等关系并不都是通过逻辑性语法词 来表示,而是通过语法习惯或用词习惯来体现。因此,汉译此类句子时应增译某些关联词。 例1.?Being?a?good?conductor,?copper?is?generally?used?to?conduct?electricity.?

例2.?The?life?of?this?controller?could?be?significantly?improved?with?the?proper?using.?

9.?增加概括性或分述性词语

例1.?Listening,?speaking,?reading?and?writing?are?closely?related.?

例2.?There?are?three?basic?ways?of?producing?or?storing?electricity:?by?generator,?by?battery,?or?by?accumulator.?

10.?增加语气助词

例1.?Now?then,?none?of?your?nonsense!??Let’s?get?to?business.?

例2.?I’m?not?sorry?I?said?it,?so?there.

11.?添加某些解释性词语引起的增译

例1.We?will?go?there?by?a?Liberation.?

12.?中英文化差异引起的增译

例1.?It?was?Fridayand?soon?they’d?go?out?and?get?drunk.?

例2.?While?it?may?seem?to?bepainting?the?lily.?I?should?like?to?add?somewhat?to?Mr.?Alistair?Cooke’s?excellent?article.?

Assignment?

1.?弄不好,就会前功尽弃。(增加连词、名词和代词)?

2.?Keep?your?eye?on?this?new?development.?(增加名词?)?

3.?My?audiences?vary?from?tens?to?thousands.?I?expected?opposition?but?got?hardly?any.?(增加数词和动 词)?

4.?We?recognize????and?share?????China’s?resolve?to?resist?the?attempts?of?any?nation?which?seeks?to?establish?global?or?regional?hegemony.?(增加省略部分)?

5.?I?remember?the?first?time?we?talked?as?woman?to?woman.?(增加形容词)?

6.?作为一个世界贸易组织,缺乏中国,它也很难发挥作为一个世界贸易组织的应有作用。(增加 名词)

翻译技巧?4?词类转译法

英语与汉语的一个显著差异: 英 语 与 汉 语 的 一 个 显 著 差 异

英语呈静态;汉语呈动态

从词汇用法上,英语中常用抽象名词、动词的同源名词、同源形容词、副词及介词等来表达动 态含义。而汉语的动词由于无形态变化,若要表示动作意义,往往只能采用动词。?Don’t?believe?him.?You?should?know?he?is?a?good?kidder.?

I’mdoubtfulwhether?he?is?still?alive.?

Mother?is?on?the?telephone?with?father?.?

词类转译法定义 词 类 转 译 法 定

在翻译时, 由于两种语言在语法和习惯表达上的差异, 在保证原文意思不变的情况下,译文 必须改变词类,这就叫词类转移法?(Conversion)?,?又叫转换法,转译法。?C?o?n?v?e?r?s?i?o?n?

Conversion?of?parts?of?speech?is?frequently?and?flexibly?used?in?translation.?Whether?or?not?it?is?to?be?used?seems?not?to?be?determined?by?the?original,?instead,?it?is?determined?by?the?target??language,?whose?advantages?must?be?taken?and?will?be?taken?to?the?full?by?converting?parts?of?speech?of?certain?words.?

一、词类的转译?

(一)?英语名词的转译?

1.?英语名词—〉汉语动词 1?汉 语 动

名词化?(nominalization)?n?o?m?i?n?a?l?i?z?a?t?i?o?n?成为英语使用中的普遍现象,构成了静态为主的语言特征。而汉 语是逻辑性语言,不受动词形态变化的约束,使用较多的动词,形成了明显的动态优势。英 译汉的过程就是在译文中强化原文动态色彩的过程,常常需要英语名词转换成汉语动词。?

(1)?具有动作意义的名词(action?nouns)?(?1?具 有 动 作 意 义 的 名 词 (?a?c?t?i?o?n?o?u?n?s?

例?1.?I’m?convinced?that?China’s?WTO?membership?will?do?more?contributions?to?the?development?m?e?m?b?e?r?s?h?i?p?

of?global?economy.?

例?2.?Parents’love?of?children?is?perfect?and?minute.?(n.+?of)?l?o?v?o?f?

例?3.?There?is?no?shortcut?to?the?mastery?of?English.?(n.+of?短语)?m?a?s?t?e?r?o?E?n?g?l?i?s?h?

(2)?有些与感官动词?(see,?hear,?think,?know?等)联系的名词?(sight,?sound,?glance,?view,?(?2?有 些 与 感 官 动 词 (?s?e?e?h?e?a?r?t?h?i?n?k?k?n?o?等 )?相相 联 系 的 名 词 (?s?i?g?h?t?s?o?u?n?d?g?l?a?n?c?e?v?i?e?w?knowledge?等)通常转译成动词。 k?n?o?w?l?e?d?g?等 )?通 常 转 译 成 动 词

例?1.The?sight?and?sound?of?our?jet?planes?filled?me?with?special?longing.?s?i?g?h?t?s?o?u?n?d?

例?2.Some?knowledge?about?the?structure?and?history?of?Chinese?is?helpful?for?the?study?of?the?k?n?o?w?l?e?d?g?e?s?t?u?d?y?language.?

(3)某些由动词作词根+er/or?构成的名词,当它不表示个人的职业,而具有较强的动作意义时,可 (?3?)?某 些 由 动 词 作 词 根 +?e?r?/?o?构 成 的 名 词 , 当 它 不 表 示 个 人 的 职 业 , 而 具 有 较 强 的 动 作 意 义 时 , 将其转译为动词。 将 其 转 译 为 动 词

例?1.?Professor?Wang?was?the?instructori?n?s?t?r?u?c?t?o?r?of?our?experiment.?

例?2.?He?is?a?good?eaterood?sleeper.?g?o?o?e?a?t?e?r?and?a?gg?o?o?s?l?e?e?p?e?r?

例?3.?Those?photos?served?as?a?reminder?of?my?childhood.?r?e?m?i?n?d?e?r?

例?4?I?am?afraid?I?can’t?teach?you?swimming.?I?think?my?little?brother?is?a?better?teacher?than?I.?

(4)?构成动词短语的中心名词?

have?a?look,?have?a?glance?at?,?have?a?love?for,?take?care?of,?take?notice?of,?pay?attention?to,?make?use?of,?give?approval?to?等

例?1.?He?had?a?good?knowledge?of?chemistry.?

例?2.?Please?don’t?get?on?or?off?the?bus?before?it?comes?to?a?full?stop.c?o?m?e?t?f?u?l?s?t?o?p?

2.?英语名词—〉汉语的形容词

形容词派生来的名词 形 容 词 派 生 来 的 名

例?1.?We?are?deeply?convinced?of?the?correctness?of?this?policy?and?firmly?determined?to?pursue?it.?c?o?r?r?e?c?t?n?e?s?s?

例?2.?Australian?guests?are?immensely?impressed?by?the?splendor?and?warmth?of?our?reception?at?s?p?l?e?n?d?o?r?w?a?r?m?t?h?

the?airport.?

3.?英语名词—〉汉语的副词?3?汉 语 的 副 词

The?delegates?at?the?conference?unanimously?expressed?their?determination?to?oppose?hegemonism?on?d?e?t?e?r?m?i?n?a?t?i?o?n?

the?part?of?the?two?superpowers.?

(二)英语形容词的转译?(?二 )?英 语 形 容 词 的 转 译

1.?英语形容词—〉汉语的动词?1?汉 语 的 动 词

(1)?由动词派生来的形容词,尤其以?able,??ible?为后缀的形容词动作意义明显?(?1?由 动 词 派 生 来 的 形 容 词 , 尤 其 以 ??a?b?l?e???i?b?l?为 后 缀 的 形 容 词 动 作 意 义 明 显

work???workable?

avail???available?

convert???convertible?

apply???applicable?

dispose???disposable?

这类形容词使用频率高,能贴切地体现出汉语的动词意义.。译为“可……”,“适合…..”?例?1What?she?said?is?dismissible,?so?don’t?take?it?to?heart.?d?i?s?m?i?s?s?i?b?l?e?

例?2?水火不相容。 不 相 容

例?3?The?State?Department’s?top?ranking?Asian?specialist?said?Monday?that?China’s?opening?to?the?

West?is?a?helpful?policy?that?should?be?encouraged?by?closec?l?o?s?e?ties?with?the?United?States.?

(2)?表示心理活动和状态的形容词?(confident,?certain,?angry,?aware,?optimistic,?anxious,?guilty,?delighted,?reluctant等)?

例?1?Doctors?have?said?that?they?are?notthey?can?save?his?life.?

例?2?对中美关系的未来我持乐观的态度。持 乐 观 的 态 度 ?

(3)?以?ed,??ing?结尾的形容词常与?be?动词或其他弱化动词连用,具有明显的动态特征?(?3?以 ??e?d???i?n?结 尾 的 形 容 词 常 与 b?动 词 或 其 他 弱 化 动 词 连 用 , 具 有 明 显 的 动 态 特 征

excited/?enlightening/?pushing/?relieved/?determined/?rewarding/?embarrassing/?well?intentioned?等 例?1?知道他已经安全地到达美国,我终于松了一口气。 松 了 一 口 气

例?2?Saud?was?a?frustrated?man?at?that?time?.?f?r?u?s?t?r?a?t?e?d?

(4)?兼有介词性质的部分形容词

例?1.?In?those?years?the?Republicans?were?in.?

例?2.?Strawberries?are?never?in?for?long.?

例?3.?他的主席任期明年期满。?

2.?英语形容词—〉汉语的名词 2?汉 语 的 名

例?1.?Most?of?us?think?him?very?hypocritical.?h?y?p?o?c?r?i?t?i?c?a?l?

例?2?Computers?are?more?flexible,?and?can?do?a?greater?variety?of?jobs.?f?l?e?x?i?b?l?e?

3.?英语形容词—〉汉语的副词 3?汉 语 的 副

例?1.?There?is?a?big?increase?in?demand?for?all?kinds?of?consumer?goods?in?every?part?of?our?b?i?i?n?c?r?e?a?s?

country.?

例?2?She?was?concentrating?herself?too?thoroughly???what?she?did?really?required?less?mental?and?m?e?n?t?a?a?n?physical?strain.?p?h?y?s?i?c?a?l?

例?3.?We?must?make?full?usef?u?l?u?s?e?of?the?natural?resources?available.

(三)?英语动词的转译?(?三 英 语 动 词 的 转 译

1.?英语动词—〉汉语的名词 1?汉 语 的 名

例?1?Quick?decision?characterized?him.?例 Q?u?i?c?d?e?c?i?s?i?o?c?h?a?r?a?c?t?e?r?i?z?e?h?i?m?

例?2?Our?age?is?witnessing?a?profound?political?change.?

例?3?Gases?differ?from?solids?in?that?the?former?have?greater?compressibility?than?the?latter.?例 G?a?s?e?d?i?f?f?e?f?r?o?s?o?l?i?d?i?t?h?a?t?h?f?o?r?m?e?h?a?v?g?r?e?a?t?e?c?o?m?p?r?e?s?s?i?b?i?l?i?t?t?h?a?t?h?l?a?t?t?e?r?

2.?英语动词—〉汉语的副词 2?汉 语 的 副

例?Underground?water?reserves?are?much?larger?than?those?on?the?surface,?but?as?they?are?unseen?例 U?n?d?e?r?g?r?o?u?n?w?a?t?e?r?e?s?e?r?v?e?a?r?m?u?c?l?a?r?g?e?t?h?a?t?h?o?s?o?t?h?s?u?r?f?a?c?e?b?u?a?t?h?e?a?r?u?n?s?e?e?we?tend?to?underestimate?them.?w?t?e?n?t?u?n?d?e?r?e?s?t?i?m?a?t?t?h?e?m?

3.?英语动词—〉汉语的形容词 3?汉 语 的 形 容

例?1.?Let?me?see?if?it?works.?例 1?L?e?m?s?e?i?i?w?o?r?k?s?.?

(四)?英语中副词的转译?

1.?英语副词—〉汉语的形容词

当英语中的动词转译成汉语的名词时,修饰动词的副词一般便转译为形容词。

例:In?dependent?observers?have?commented?favourably?on?the?achievements?you?have?made?in?this?例 : I?n?d?e?p?e?n?d?e?n?o?b?s?e?r?v?e?r?h?a?v?c?o?m?m?e?n?t?e?f?a?v?o?u?r?a?b?l?o?t?h?a?c?h?i?e?v?e?m?e?n?t?y?o?h?a?v?m?a?d?i?t?h?i?direction.?d?i?r?e?c?t?i?o?n?

2.?英语副词—〉汉语的名词 2?汉 语 的 名

某些由名词派生的副词,可转 译为汉语的名词。 某 些 由 名 词 派 生 的 副 词 , 可 译 为 汉 语 的 名 词

例?1.?Such?details?must?be?dimensionally?correct.?例 1?S?u?c?d?e?t?a?i?l?m?u?s?b?d?i?m?e?n?s?i?o?n?a?l?l?c?o?r?r?e?c?t?

例?2.?The?paper?said?editorially?that?Mcmillan?has?stolen?the?Western?leadership?during?Dulles’?例 2?T?h?p?a?p?e?s?a?i?e?d?i?t?o?r?i?a?l?l?t?h?a?M?c?m?i?l?l?a?h?a?s?t?o?l?e?t?h?W?e?s?t?e?r?l?e?a?d?e?r?s?h?i?d?u?r?i?n?D?u?l?l?e?s?absence.?a?b?s?e?n?c?e?

3.?英语副词—〉汉语的动词

例?1.?他的主席任期明年期满。 例 1?他 的 主 席 任 期 明 年 期 满 。

将汉语动词译为英语副词?in,?over,?up,?away,?off,?back,?out,?apart,?on,?既简洁又符合英语副词 将 汉 语 动 词 译 为 英 语 副 词 i?n?o?v?e?r?u?p?a?w?a?y?o?f?f?b?a?c?k?o?u?t?a?p?a?r?t?o?n?既 简 洁 又 符 合 英 语 副 具有动态特征的表达习惯。?具 有 动 态 特 征 的 表 达 习 惯 。

(五)?介词的转译?(?五 介 词 的 转 译

1.?英语介词—〉汉语的动词 1?

英语中有不少介词,如:about,?of,?for,?by,?in,?past,?over,?around,?across,?through,?with,?against,?英 语 中 有 不 少 介 词 , 如 : a?b?o?u?t?o?f?f?o?r?b?y?i?n?p?a?s?t?o?v?e?r?a?r?o?u?n?d?a?c?r?o?s?s?t?h?r?o?u?g?h?w?i?t?h?a?g?a?i?n?s?t?above?等,都具有较强的动词意味, 汉译时可转译为动词。 a?b?o?v?等 , 都 具 有 较 强 的 动 词 意 味 汉 译 时 可 转 译 为 动 词

例?1.?He?invited?me?to?his?house?for?lunch.?例 1?H?i?n?v?i?t?e?m?t?h?i?h?o?u?s?f?o?l?u?n?c?h?

例?2.?他不求名不求利。 例 2?他 不 求 名 不 求 利

例?3.?We?talked?on?over?fresh?tea.?例 3?W?t?a?l?k?e?o?o?v?e?f?r?e?s?t?e?a?

例4.Out?of?all?the?glorious?tales?written?about?the?US?revolution?for?independence?from?Britain?the?例 4?.?O?u?o?a?l?t?h?g?l?o?r?i?o?u?t?a?l?e?w?r?i?t?t?e?a?b?o?u?t?h?U?r?e?v?o?l?u?t?i?o?f?o?i?n?d?e?p?e?n?d?e?n?c?f?r?o?B?r?i?t?a?i?t?h?fact?is?hardly?known?that?a?black?man?was?the?first?to?die?formerican?independence.?f?a?c?i?h?a?r?d?l?k?n?o?w?t?h?a?b?l?a?c?m?a?w?a?t?h?f?i?r?s?t?d?i?f?o?r?AA?m?e?r?i?c?a?i?n?d?e?p?e?n?d?e?n?c?e?

2.?be?+?介词词组—〉汉语动词结构 2?b?介 词 词 组 汉 语 动 词 结

例?1.?The?shop?is?on?business?24?hours?a?day?

例?2.?他又遇到了麻烦。

例?3.That?failure?gave?me?a?heavy?blow?and?I?was?at?a?loss?about?my?future?in?the?following?days.?

3.?英语介词短语—〉形容词 3?短 语 形 容

例?A?man?of?talent?is?usually?honest?and?modest.例 m?a?o?t?a?l?e?n?i?u?s?u?a?l?l?h?o?n?e?s?a?n?m?o?d?e?s?t?.?

二、句子成分的转译 二 、 句 子 成 分 的 转 译

由于各类词都具有自身的语法功能,在进行词类转译时,其语法功能往往也就随之而改变了。 因此,其充当句子中的成分也就随之而改变了。

例?1?Thousands?of?Chineseoverseas?have?asked?to?be?permitted?to?return?to?China,?but?they?have?met?with?all?sorts?of?unreasonable?obstacles,?which?have?prevented?them?from?returning?to?their?motherland.?

例?2?On?these?issues,?Stalin?was?subjective?and?one?sided.?

翻译技巧?4?作业

翻译下列句子,注意斜体字的词类转译。?翻 译 下 列 句 子 , 注 意 斜 体 字 的 词 类 转 译 。

1.She?feltthe?need?of?a?breath?of?fresh?airanda?drink?of?water,?but?did?not?venture?to?stir.?

2.?He?found?somedifficulties?to?design?a?power?plant?without?an?electronic?computer.?

3.?A?well?dressed?man,?who?looked?and?talked?like?an?American,?got?into?the?car.?

4.?He?was?a?voracious?reader,?spending?much?of?his?days?and?evenings?devouring?books.?

5.?Theuse?of?bacteriological?weapons?is?aclear?violation?of?the?international?law.?

6.?Iused?to?have?a?hard?time?with?chemistry.?

7.?说完 这些话,他就走了。?

8.?要学好一门外语是不容易的,非下苦功不可。?

9.?我们都赞成 该项法律,因为它符合 我们的利益。?

10.?国际奥委会主席表示相信 中国能够成功地主办?2008?年的奥运会。

翻译技巧?5?分句合句法

分句法和合句法是改变原文句子结构的两种重要方法。

分句法:指把原文的一个简单句译成两个或两个以上的句子。

合句法:指把原文两个或两个以上的简单句或一个复合句在译文中用一个单句来表达。 分句法?

I、把原文中的一个单词译成句子,使原文的一个句子分译成两个或两个以上的句子。?

1.?副词

例?1:They,?not?surprisingly,?did?not?respond?at?all.?

例?2:?The?Chinese?seemed?justifiably?proud?of?their?economic?achievements.?

例?3:He?is?suggestively?silent.?

2.?形容词

例?1:?That?region?was?the?most?identifiable?trouble?spot.?

例?2:She?wanted?to?find?a?lonely?place?to?shed?private?tears.?

例?3;Alice?and?Mary?stood?in?quiet?sorrow?for?some?time.?

例?4:I?drank?a?silent?toast?to?good?life.?

例?5:?He?had?long?been?held?in?cordial?contempt?by?his?peers??now?that?contempt?was?no?longer?cordial.?

3.?名词

例?1:例?2:Pressing?down?the?button?of?the?alarm?clock,?he?curled?up?for?a?last?moment?under?the?

bedclothes.?

II.?把原文中的一个短语译成句子,使原文的一个句子分译成两个或两个以上的句子。?

1.?分词短语

例?1:?She?sat?with?her?hands?cupping?her?chin,?staring?at?a?corner?of?the?little?kitchen.?例?2:Zimmerman?leaped?to?his?feet,?moving?with?surprising?agility.?

2.?名词短语

例?1:?I?wrote?four?books?in?the?first?three?years,例?2:?Energy?can?neither?be?created?nor?destroyed,?a?universally?accepted?law.?

3.?介词短语

例?1:?Their?power?increased?with?their?number.?

例?2:Darcy,?in?wretched?silence,?could?onlysay?something?indistinctly?of?his?concern?and?observe?her?in?compassionate?silence.?

III.?把原文的一个句子拆开,译成两个或两个以上的句子

例?1:?She?had?made?several?attempts?to?help?them?find?other?rental?quarters?without?success.?例?2:?But?another?round?of?war?in?the?region?clearly?would?put?strains?on?international?relations.

例?3:?His?failure?to?observe?the?safety?regulations?resulted?in?an?accident?to?the?machinery.?例4:His?supervisor?was?probably?already?pacing?up?and?down?with?a?dismissal?speech?rehearsed.??

例?5:The?reefs?loomed?in?front?of?them?with?startling?clarity.?

合句法?

I.?把原文中两个或两个以上的简单句译成一个单句。

例?1:?It?was?on?the?early?morning?of?April?2,?1971.?The?pilots?were?briefed?in?the?ready?room.?例?2:?He?was?very?clean.?His?mind?was?open.?

II.?把原文中的主从复合句译成一个单句

例?1:?When?I?negotiate,?I?get?nervous.?When?I?get?nervous,?I?eat.?

例?2:?When?we?praise?the?Chinese?leadership?and?the?people,?we?are?not?merely?being?polite.?III.?把原文中的并列复合句译成一个单句

例?1:?In?1844?Engels?met?Marx,?and?they?became?friends.?

例?2:The?time?was?10:30,?and?traffic?on?the?street?was?light.

翻译技巧

第六讲 正说反译,反说正译法

正说反译,反说正译法(Negation)?

0?Introduction?

Negation?is?an?important?composition?of?any?language,?but?different?languages?have?various?ways?to?express?negation,?which?are?reflected?not?only?in?the?use?of?negative?words?but?also?in?different?structures?of?negation.?

英语的否定形式 多种多样—— 全部否定,?部分否定,?双重否定,?形式否定,?意义否定

汉语的否定形式单一——?negative?words?are?always?put?before?the?part?to?be?negated.?

1.?否定转移?

(1)?一般否定 ——〉特殊否定

例?1.?I?don’t?teach?because?teaching?is?easy?for?me.?

例?2.?We?don’t?read?novels?for?amusement.?

例?3.?The?planets?do?not?go?around?the?sun?at?a?uniform?speed?

(2)?特殊否定 ——〉一般否定

例?1.?No?sound?was?heard.?

例?2.?So?far?we?know?of?no?effective?way?to?store?solar?energy.?

2.?意义否定的译法

所谓意义否定,就是英语中某些形式上是肯定的,但意义上却是否定的句式。

此类句式中,既没有否定词(no,?not,?none,?nothing,?nobody,?neither,?hardly,?seldom,?rarely,?little等)?,也没有带否 定的前缀(?dis?,?ir?,?im?,?non?,?un?等)的词。其句意上的否定意义,均缘于句中的某些词的词义。?

(1)由某些名词引起的意义否定

例?1.?A?few?instruments?are?in?a?state?of?neglect?.?

例?2.?In?the?absence?of?gravity,?there?would?be?no?air?around?the?earth.?

例?3.?Shortage?of?workers?kept?the?progress?of?the?project?slow.?

(2)?由某些动词或动词短语引起的意义否定?(?e.g.?fail,?refuse,?keep?off,?reject,?deny,?prevent?from,?refrain?from,?give?up,?withhold,?avoid,?stop,?turn?down,?fall?short?of,?lose?sight?of,?shut?one’s?eyes?to,?turn?a?deaf?ear?to?等)?

例?1.?He?failed?to?appreciate?our?kindness.?

例?2.?The?name?slipped?from?my?memory.?

例?3.?The?specification?lacks?detail.?

(3)?由某些介词引起的意义否定

例?1.?Theory?of?Relativity?worked?out?by?Einstein?is?now?above?many?people.?

例?2.?What?I’m?saying?is?off?record.?

例?3.?It?was?beyond?his?power?to?sign?such?a?contract.?

(4)?由某些连词引起的意义否定

例?1.?He?would?rather?die?standing?than?live?kneeling.?

例?2.?I’ll?see?you?dead?before?I?accept?your?terms.?

例?3.?Unless?there?is?motion,?there?is?no?work.?

(5)?某些形容词引起的意义否定

例?1.?Individualism?is?alien?to?the?world?outlook?of?the?proletariat.?

例?2.?He?is?strange?to?compliment.?

例?3.?Appearances?are?deceptive.?

例?4.?The?explanation?is?pretty?thin.

1?

(6)?由某些短语引起的意义否定

例?1.?This?problem?is?far?from?being?complicated.?

例?2.?But?for?these?thick?trees,?the?bitter?wind?would?have?blown?the?house?to?pieces.?

例?3.?When?Philip?missed?the?last?bus,?he?was?at?a?loss?to?know?what?to?do.?

例?4.?There?are?two?aspects?to?everything??to?say?there?is?only?one?is?to?be?aware?of?one?aspect?and?to?be?ignorant?of?the?other.?

(7)?某些句子引起的意义否定

例?1.?He?was?75,?but?he?carried?his?years?lightly.?

例?2.?Imagine?that.?So?you’re?a?navy?officer?now.?

例?3.?Don’t?be?a?damned?fool.?Remember?I’m?not?a?gentleman.?I?know?how?to?use?my?fists.?

In?the?other?way?round,?then,?in?translating?Chinese?into?English,?a?number?of?negative?sentences?can?be?turned?into?the?affirmative.?

你没事吧?

不要客气。

别挂断电话。

雨一直不停,下了三天。?

3.?形式否定的译法

所谓形式否定句,是指某些形式上是否定的,但其意义上却是肯定的句式,且肯定语气往往更加强烈。

例?1.?I?couldn’t?agree?with?you?more.?

例?2.?It’s?no?laughing?matter.?

例?3.?Don’t?lose?time?in?posting?this?letter.?

例?4.?His?speech?leaves?nothing?to?be?desired.?

例?5.?There?is?nothing?like?mineral?water?to?quench?one’s?thirst.?

例?6.?I’ll?go?there?as?soon?as?not.?

Then?in?translating?Chinese?into?English,?the?other?way?round?is?often?a?good?choice.?

我的头痛老不见好。

他们一开始很不习惯。

我们讨论中国文化问题,不要忘记这些基本观点。?

4.?部分否定的译法?(?partial?negation)?

部分否定句由?all,?every,?both,?everything,?everybody,?always?等含有“整体”或“多数”意义的词,与否定词?not构 成,通常译成“不全是”、“未必都”、“并非全”等。

例?1.?All?that?glitters?is?not?gold.?

例?2.?Both?of?the?instruments?are?not?precise.?

例?3.?I?don’t?knowall?the?meters.?

5.?双重否定的译法(negation?of?negation?/?double?negation)?

例1?There?is?no?smoke?without?fire.?

例2?Nothing?venture,?nothing?have.?

例3?One?cannot?succeed?without?perseverance.?

例4?A?home?without?love?is?no?more?a?home?than?a?body?without?a?soul?is?a?man.?

例5?Sunlight?is?no?less?necessary?than?fresh?air?to?a?healthy?condition?of?body.?

Assignment?

翻译下列句子,注意正反译法的转换?

1.?She?never?comes?without?bringing?some?candy?for?the?children.?

2.?If?the?weather?holds?a?couple?ofdays,?the?plane?will?take?off.

2?

3.?

4.?

5.?

6.?

7.?

8.?

9.?

10.?His?refusal?is?not?final.?The?significance?of?these?incidents?wasn’t?lost?on?us.?You?can’t?make?something?out?ofnothing.?February?17,1915,?was?just?another?day?at?the?Western?Savings?Bank?in?Chicago.?That?is,?until?2:30P.M.?No?man?is?wise?at?all?times.?She?went?out?before?I?realized?what?was?happening.?That?thermometer?must?be?lying.?The?meetings?were?marked?by?such?an?absence?of?lively?discussions?that?at?times?they?were?almost?on?the?point?

of?breaking?up.?

11.?活到老学到老。?

12.?这个问题我不懂。?

13.?你要特别小心。?

14.?今天的世界很不安宁。?

15.?这事容易极了,我们半小时就做完了。

3?

第七讲 语态变换法 第 七 语 态 变 换

语态转换的常见方法 语 态 转 换 的 常 见 方

一、英语被动句译成汉语主动句?(最常见的方法)?一 、 英 语 被 动 句 译 成 汉 语 主 动 句 (?最 常 见 的 方 法

(一)原文主语在译文中仍作主语?(直接改译)?( 一 ) 原 文 主 语 在 译 文 中 仍 作 主 语 (?直 接 改 译 )?

1.?The?street?was?congested.?1?T?h?s?t?r?e?e?w?a?c?o?n?g?e?s?t?e?d?

2.?The?horse?was?badly?blown.?2?T?h?h?o?r?s?w?a?b?a?d?l?b?l?o?w?n?

3.?That?man?cannot?be?relied?upon.?3?T?h?a?m?a?c?a?n?n?o?b?r?e?l?i?e?u?p?o?n?

4.?The?oil?of?the?world?will?have?been?used?up,?and?man?will?be?using?the?more?convenient?4?T?h?o?i?o?t?h?w?o?r?l?w?i?l?h?a?v?b?e?e?u?s?e?u?p?a?n?m?a?w?i?l?b?u?s?i?n?t?h?m?o?r?c?o?n?v?e?n?i?e?n?

power?obtained?from?the?splitting?of?the?atom.?p?o?w?e?o?b?t?a?i?n?e?f?r?o?t?h?s?p?l?i?t?t?i?n?o?t?h?a?t?o?m?

5.?The?discovery?is?highly?appreciated?in?the?circle?of?science.?5?T?h?d?i?s?c?o?v?e?r?i?h?i?g?h?l?a?p?p?r?e?c?i?a?t?e?i?t?h?c?i?r?c?l?o?s?c?i?e?n?c?e?

6.?The?hull?of?a?ship?is?often?protected?against?corrosion?with?a?coat?of?special?paint.?6?T?h?h?u?l?o?s?h?i?i?o?f?t?e?p?r?o?t?e?c?t?e?a?g?a?i?n?s?c?o?r?r?o?s?i?o?w?i?t?c?o?a?o?s?p?e?c?i?a?p?a?i?n?t?

(二)原文主语在译文中作宾语?( 二 ) 原 文 主 语 在 译 文 中 作 宾 语

1.?If?bad?weather?is?expected?,?the?forecaster?must?be?able?to?suggest?another?airport?within?the?

range?of?the?aircraft?where?the?weather?will?be?suitable?for?landing.?

2.?A?national?link?up?of?computers?could?mean?that?a?large?amount?of?information?will?be?

supplied?to?anyone?who?uses?the?system.?

3.?The?numerical?data?concerned?are?provided?in?the?third?chapter.?

4.?The?rocket?was?invented?by?Chinese?in?the?12th?century.?

5.?220V?was?read?from?the?voltmeter.?

6.?He?was?seen?to?push?a?bike?out?of?the?house.?

(三)译成无主句(zero?subject)?译 成 无 主 句 (?z?e?r?o???s?u?b?j?e?c?t?)?

1.?Children?should?be?taught?to?speak?the?truth.?1?C?h?i?l?d?r?e?s?h?o?u?l?b?t?a?u?g?h?t?s?p?e?a?t?h?t?r?u?t?h?

2.?An?agreement?was?arrived?at?after?two?days’?negotiation.?2?A?a?g?r?e?e?m?e?n?w?a?a?r?r?i?v?e?a?a?f?t?e?t?w?d?a?y?s?n?e?g?o?t?i?a?t?i?o?n?

(四)英语常用句型的汉语习惯译法?( 四 ) 英 语 常 用 句 型 的 汉 语 习 惯 译 法

1.?It?should?be?noted?that?increasing?the?length?of?the?wire?will?increase?its?resistance.?1?I?s?h?o?u?l?b?n?o?t?e?t?h?a?i?n?c?r?e?a?s?i?n?t?h?l?e?n?g?t?o?t?h?w?i?r?w?i?l?i?n?c?r?e?a?s?i?t?r?e?s?i?s?t?a?n?c?e?

2.?It?is?stated?that?thermocrete?has?virtually?the?same?strength?as?normal?concrete.?2?I?i?s?t?a?t?e?t?h?a?t?h?e?r?m?o?c?r?e?t?h?a?v?i?r?t?u?a?l?l?t?h?s?a?m?s?t?r?e?n?g?t?a?n?o?r?m?a?c?o?n?c?r?e?t?e?

二、英语被动句译成汉语被动句?二 、 英 语 被 动 句 译 成 汉 语 被 动 句

1.?How?long?will?it?be?before?black?and?white?television?sets?are?found?only?in?museums??1?H?o?l?o?n?w?i?l?i?b?b?e?f?o?r?b?l?a?c?a?n?w?h?i?t?t?e?l?e?v?i?s?i?o?s?e?t?a?r?f?o?u?n?o?n?l?i?m?u?s?e?u?m?s?

2.?If?you?subject?this?precious?instrument?to?a?high?temperature,?it?will?be?seriously?damaged.?2?I?y?o?s?u?b?j?e?c?t?h?i?p?r?e?c?i?o?u?i?n?s?t?r?u?m?e?n?t?h?i?g?t?e?m?p?e?r?a?t?u?r?e?i?w?i?l?b?s?e?r?i?o?u?s?l?d?a?m?a?g?e?d?

3.?The?earth?is?hit?from?time?to?time?by?streams?of?electrically?charged?particles?poured?out?by?3?T?h?e?a?r?t?i?h?i?f?r?o?t?i?m?t?t?i?m?b?s?t?r?e?a?m?o?e?l?e?c?t?r?i?c?a?l?l?c?h?a?r?g?e?p?a?r?t?i?c?l?e?p?o?u?r?e?o?u?b?

the?sun.?t?h?s?u?n?

4.?Radios?of?the?old?type?are?being?replaced?by?new?ones.?4?R?a?d?i?o?o?t?h?o?l?t?y?p?a?r?b?e?i?n?r?e?p?l?a?c?e?b?n?e?o?n?e?s?

三、译成汉语使动结构(Causative?structure???using?words?like?使,让,加以or?把)?三 、 译 成 汉 语 使 动 结 构 (?C?a?u?s?a?t?i?v?s?t?r?u?c?t?u?r?e???????u?s?i?n?w?o?r?d?l?i?k?使 , 让 , 加 以 o?把 )?

1.?Principles?mean?very?little?unless?they?are?acted?upon.?1?P?r?i?n?c?i?p?l?e?m?e?a?v?e?r?l?i?t?t?l?u?n?l?e?s?t?h?e?a?r?a?c?t?e?u?p?o?n?

2.?Radical?environmentalists?are?already?demanding?that?legal?and?ethical?protection?be?2?R?a?d?i?c?a?e?n?v?i?r?o?n?m?e?n?t?a?l?i?s?t?a?r?a?l?r?e?a?d?d?e?m?a?n?d?i?n?t?h?a?l?e?g?a?a?n?e?t?h?i?c?a?p?r?o?t?e?c?t?i?o?b?

extended?to?all?nature.?e?x?t?e?n?d?e?t?a?l?n?a?t?u?r?e?

3.?The?time?will?come?when?homes?will?be?heated?from?a?small?reactor?in?the?basement.?3?T?h?t?i?m?w?i?l?c?o?m?w?h?e?h?o?m?e?w?i?l?b?h?e?a?t?e?f?r?o?s?m?a?l?r?e?a?c?t?o?i?t?h?b?a?s?e?m?e?n?t?

四、译成汉语的判断句(……的是……或……是……的句式)?四 、 译 成 汉 语 的 判 断 句 ( …?…?的 是 …?…?或 …?…?是 …?…?的 句 式 )?

1.?Connected?with?itis?a?control?rod.?

2.?But?real?influence?is?not?built?up?by?striking?attitudes?or?throwing?insults.?

3.?Early?cars?were?very?strange?of?which?the?tyres?on?the?wheels?were?made?of?iron?or?solid?

rubber.?

In?the?other?way?round?such?patterns?in?Chinese?can?be?translated?into?English?passive.?I?t?h?o?t?h?e?w?a?r?o?u?n?s?u?c?p?a?t?t?e?r?n?i?C?h?i?n?e?s?c?a?b?t?r?a?n?s?l?a?t?e?i?n?t?E?n?g?l?i?s?p?a?s?s?i?v?e?.?

1.?故事讲 得娓娓动听。

2.?说话时,已摆了 茶点上来。?

3.?他的一个朋友被 恐怖分子所杀害。?

4.?我们挨了半天挤,什么热闹也没看到。?

5.?必须把 教育改革进行 到底。?

6.?今天请大家来开座谈会研究一下下一步工作。?

7.?万物都是 由原子构成的 。?

8.?这个问题必须在适当的时候予以 处理。?

9.?大家知道,这个地区有丰富的煤矿。?

10.?来宾请出示入场券。?

We?have?so?far?suggested?several?ways?to?translate?the?English?passive?voice.?But,?to?bring?out?the?real?meaning?in?natural?smooth?Chinese,?there?are?special?cases?when?the?sentence?pattern?has?to?be?changed.?

1.?You?are?wanted?on?the?phone.?

2.?Each?speaker?is?allotted?ten?minutes.?

3.?The?invincible?defence?of?Stalingrad?is?matched?by?the?commanding?military?leadership?of?

Stalin.?

4.?他被人画了一张漫画。?

5.?他被 打伤一条胳膊。?

6.?他终于被 免去所有的职务。?

Assignment?A?s?s?i?g?n?m?e?n?

英汉互译练习,注意语态的变换。?英 汉 互 译 练 习 , 注 意 语 态 的 变 换 。

1.?An?illustration?is?furnished?by?an?editorial?in?the?Washington?Post?.?

2.?Quality?of?products?must?be?guaranteed?first.?

3.?I?was?received?by?a?tall,?lithe,?vibrant?woman?in?her?70’s,?white?haired,?and?still?beautiful.?

4.?It?is?no?use?merely?mentioning?the?fact?in?passing??it?needs?to?be?driven?home?by?emphasis?and?

repetition.?

5.?Language?is?shaped?by,?and?shapes,?human?thought.?

6.?The?newly?found?electrical?materialis?widely?used?home?and?abroad?.?

7.?Sometimes?the?communication?would?be?seriously?disturbed?by?solar?spots.?

8.?他们去年遭灾了。?

9.?决不能把个人利益置于国家利益之上。?

10.?抓住了这个主要矛盾,一切问题就迎刃而解了。

翻译技巧第八讲

词序调整法?

It?seems?that?Chinese?pays?more?attention?to?the?language?feel?as?a?whole?and?sometimes?the?sound?effect?is?also?important?while?English?tends?to?give?emphasis?to?the?focus?of?view.?

1.Word?order?seems?less?important?as?compared?with?that?of?Chinese.?

Compare?these?sentences?

1) 我是从美国来的。?

2) 他连吃饭的钱都没有。?

3) 有什么吃什么。?

4) 吃什么有什么。?

Translate?the?following?expressions:?

1) 东北?

2) 脾气不好的?

3) 来来回回?

4) 水火无情?

5) 左顾右盼?

6) 不论晴雨?

?In?English:?adverbials?can?be?placed?at?the?beginning,?middle,?or?end?of?the?sentence.?

In?Chinese,?adverbials?of?time?and?place?usually?appear?at?the?beginning?of?the?sentence.?

We?ate?to?our?heart’s?content?at?her?home?last?Sunday.?

2.?As?with?Chinese?language,?the?peripheral?and?background?information?is?given?first,?the?

most?important?comes?as?the?last?part?of?the?sentence.?

More?often?than?not?the?opposite?is?true?with?the?English?language.?

The?underlined?is?the?central?part.?

1)?that?eventful?day?and?lived?over?the?joys?it?had?brought?me.?

2)?at?the?age?of?seventeen,?having?been?born?poor?in?a?village.?

3)?his?brother?didn’t?turn?up?at?all.?

3.?In?Chinese,?condition,?cause?and?concession?are?usually?put?at?the?beginning?of?the?sentence,?and?the?result?or?effect?comes?after?that.?

But?in?English,?it?is?usually?the?other?way?round.?

1)?He?was?daring?and?resourceful?besides?being?a?fine?shot.?

2)?He?is?not?happy,?though?he?is?rich.?

3)?Draw,?if?you?be?man,?Gregory,?remember?thy?smashing?blow.?

4)?that?he?might?not?be?there,?that?she?might?not?see?him?after?all,?and?by?that?dogged?resolve—somehow,?she?did?not?know—to?win?him?back.

1?

Translation?&?Culture?T?r?a?n?s?l?a?t?i?o?C?u?l?t?u?r?e?

Lost?in?translationàLost?in?Culture?L?o?s?i?t?r?a?n?s?l?a?t?i?o?n?à L?o?s?i?C?u?l?t?u?r?e?

What?is?culture??

Culture?is?whatever?people?do?monkeys?don’’?t.?C?u?l?t?u?r?i?w?h?a?t?e?v?e?p?e?o?p?l?d?m?o?n?k?e?y?d?o?n?t?

The?New?World?Encyclopedia:?T?h?N?e?W?o?r?l?E?n?c?y?c?l?o?p?e?d?i?a?:?

Culture?is?the?totality?of?the?spiritual,?intellectual,?and?artistic?attitudes?shared?by?a?group,?C?u?l?t?u?r?e?

including?its?tradition,?habits,?social?customs,?morals,?laws,?and?social?relations.?Sociologically,?every?society,?on?every?level,?has?its?culture??the?term?has?no?implications?of?high?development.?Language?is?not?isolated.?L?a?n?g?u?a?g?i?n?o?i?s?o?l?a?t?e?d?n?Every?language?belongs?to?a?certain?culture.?

n?It?is?difficult?to?separate?language?and?cultural?identity.?

n?How?different?peoples?express?what?they?see?is?determined?by?how?they?perceive?and?interpret?and?react?to?reality.?

n?consideration?its?uniqueness?and?its?relation?to?the?environment.?

Language?is?the?source?of?misunderstandings.?L?a?n?g?u?a?g?i?t?h?s?o?u?r?c?o?m?i?s?u?n?d?e?r?s?t?a?n?d?i?n?g?s?.?

—?Antoine?de?Saint?Exupéry?

Try?to?translate?the?following?idioms:?

n?Love?me,?love?my?dog.?

n?Birds?of?a?feather?flock?together.?

n?Longest?day?must?have?an?end.?

n?Gild?the?lily?

n?A?peacock?in?a?turkey’s?pen?

To?avoid?unnecessary?cultural?shift,?great?care?should?be?taken?when?one?tries?to?use?similar?existing?sayings?in?the?target?language.?

In?China,?

when?people?meet…?

甲:“吃了吗?”?

乙:“吃啦!”?

How?to?translate??

A:?“Have?you?had?your?meal?”?

B:?“Yes,?I?have.”?

“No,?I?haven’t.”?

(“Do?you?mean?to?invite?me?to?dinner?”)?

In?western?countries…?

A:?“Lovely?weather,?isn’t?it?”?

B:?“Yes,?isn’t?it?”?

民以食为天 民 以 食 为

n?People?regard?food?as?their?prime?want. n P?e?o?p?l?r?e?g?a?r?f?o?o?a?t?h?e?i?p?r?i?m?w?a?n?t?

n?Food?is?the?first?necessity?of?man.?n F?o?o?i?t?h?f?i?r?s?n?e?c?e?s?s?i?t?o?m?a?n?.?

Terms?relating?to?“吃”:

n 饭桶

n 吃不开

n 吃不了兜着走

n 吃不消

n 吃老本

n 吃软不吃硬

n 吃闲饭

n 吃香?

Wu?Song?killed?a?tiger?in?his?drunken?courage…?

n 武行者心中要吃,哪里听他分说,一片声喝道,‘放屁!放屁!’?

Pearl?S.?Buck?

Now?Wu?the?priest?longed?much?in?his?heart?to?eat,?and?so?how?could?he?willing?to?listen?to?the?explanation??He?bellowed?forth,?“Pass?your?wind,?pass?your?wind!”?

What?do?you?think?of?Wu?Song’s?imperative?remark??

n 汉语“放屁”作骂人话时,喻指“说话没有根据或不合情理”,而英语pass?one’s?wind只是一种自

然生理现象。

n 英语读者错以为中国人的气功了得,对这一生理现象居然可以发号施令!

n 可以用英语中语用意义相当的shit!或者What?crap!?

There?is?a?saying?in?Chinese:?恨铁不成钢

n?to?regret?that?it?is?iron?but?not?steel?

n?to?wish?that?iron?could?be?turned?into?steel?

fail?to?bring?out?the?connotative?meaning?that?the?speaker?is?disappointed?that?someone–?usually?a?loved?one–?does?not?do?as?good?as?has?been?expected?

n?If?it?was?translated?literally?→?

How?Steel?Is?Smelted??

n?People?would?think?it?is?most?probably语言学习不仅要掌握其语音、语法和词汇,还要了解其不同的文化背景和使用场景。?the?Queen’s?speech?女王的演讲辞??

the?Queen’s?English?女王的具体言辞??

grammar?school?语法学校??

Translation?and?Culture?T?r?a?n?s?l?a?t?i?o?a?n?C?u?l?t?u?r?

n?Cull?tural?Connotatii?on?n C?u?t?u?r?a?C?o?n?n?o?t?a?t?o?

Impll?ii?catii?on?of?Animal?Terms?I?m?p?c?a?t?o?o?A?n?m?a?T?e?r?m?

Impll?ii?catii?on?of?Coll?or?Terms?I?m?p?c?a?t?o?o?C?o?o?T?e?r?m?

n?All?ll?usii?on?and?Metaphor?n A?u?s?o?a?n?M?e?t?a?p?h?o?

n?Cull?turall?ly?Unii?que?Terms?n C?u?t?u?r?a?U?n?q?u?T?e?r?m?

n?Trademarks?and?Advertii?sements?n T?r?a?d?e?m?a?r?k?a?n?A?d?v?e?r?t?s?e?m?e?n?t?s?

Cultural?Connotation?C?u?l?t?u?r?a?C?o?n?n?o?t?a?t?i?o?

n?Impll?ii?cation?of?Anii?mal?Terms?n I?m?p?c?a?t?o?o?A?n?m?a?T?e?r?m?

n?Impll?ii?cation?of?Coll?or?Terms?n I?m?p?c?a?t?o?o?C?o?o?T?e?r?m?s?

Implication?of?Animal?Terms?I?m?p?l?i?c?a?t?i?o?o?A?n?i?m?a?T?e?r?m?s?

Tall?kii?ng?about?cull?tural?connotatii?ons,?one?wii?ll?l?fii?rst?thii?nk?of?ii?mages?represented?by?anii?mall?s…?T?a?k?n?a?b?o?u?c?u?t?u?r?a?c?o?n?n?o?t?a?t?o?n?s?o?n?w?f?r?s?t?h?n?o?m?a?g?e?r?e?p?r?e?s?e?n?t?e?b?a?n?m?a?s?n 英汉动物喻体相同、喻义相似 n 英 汉 动 物 喻 体 相 同 、 喻 义 相

n 英汉动物喻体相异、喻义相似 n 英 汉 动 物 喻 体 相 异 、 喻 义 相

n 英汉动物喻体相同、喻义相异n 英 汉 动 物 喻 体 相 同 、 喻 义 相 异

n 英语动物词汇的象征意义 n 英 语 动 物 词 汇 的 象 征 意

英汉动物喻体相同、喻义相似?

Sometimes?Chinese?and?English?share?connotative?meanings:?

“狐狸”and?“fox”?

CUNNING?

“猴子”?and?“monkey”?

MISCHIEF?

“狼”?and?“wolf”?

SAVAGENESS?

WOLF?

The?Gospel?of?Matthew?7:15,?New?Testament,?Bible?

“A?wolf?in?sheep’s?clothing”?

披着羊皮的狼

表面温顺友善,实则凶残的伪君子?

WOLF:凶猛、狡诈、贪婪?

1)The?life?of?the?wolf?is?the?death?of?the?lamb.?

1.?

2.?

3.?Wake?not?a?sleeping?wolf?See?a?wolf?To?lead?a?wolf?into?the?house?

WOLF:心肠狠毒、忘恩负义

n?He’s?mad?that?trusts?in?the?tameness?of?a?wolf,?a?boy’s?love,?or?a?shore’s?oath.?n?It?is?madness?for?a?sheep?to?treat?peace?with?a?wolf.?

WOLF用以指人:?

A?man?who?is?always?ready?to?make?sexual?advance?to?a?woman?→?a?wolf?whistle?“He?has?a?face?like?an?angel,?but?he’s?really?a?terrible?wolf.”?色狼?

FOX:诡诈、狡猾

n?When?the?fox?says?he’s?vegetarian,?it’s?time?for?the?hen?to?look?out.?

n?The?fox?is?known?by?his?brush.?

n?He?is?as?sly?as?a?fox.?You’ve?got?to?watch?him.?

n?You?can?never?fox?me.?

SERPENT:阴险、毒辣、狡诈

n?Bible:?

Satan?searches?for?Eve?and?is?delighted?to?find?her?alone.?In?the?form?ofa?serpent,?he?talks?to?Eve?and?compliments?her?on?her?beauty?and?godliness…

SERPENT/SNAKE?

n?A?snake?in?the?grass?

n?A?snake?in?one’s?bosom(胸怀,内心)

n?Serpent?eye?

PIG:肮脏、贪婪、懒惰……?

n?He’d?been?a?pig?about?money.?

n?Make?a?pig?of?oneself?

n?Pigs?in?clover?

n?Buy?a?pig?in?a?poke?

Other?Examples:?

n?He?doesn’t?have?an?idea?of?his?own.?He?just?parrots?what?others?say.?

n?As?slow?as?a?snail/at?a?snail’s?pace?

n?A?lion?at?home,?a?mouse?abroad.?

n?A?rat?crossing?the?street?is?chased?by?all.?

英汉动物喻体相异、喻义相似

n 文化的差异导致同样的喻义在此文化中用这种喻体,在彼文化中可能使用一个完全不同的

喻体。?

“百兽之王”?

汉文化:虎

英语文化:狮子?

LION?

n?Webster’s?Third?New?International?Dictionary?of?the?English?Language:“n?Collins?COBUILD?English?Language?Dictionary:?n 英国人自豪地以狮子作为国家标志,英国国徽的中心图案是Lion,因此英国又被称为The?

British?Lion,所以to?twist?the?lion’s?tail意为“向英国挑战”。Lion?and?Unicorn(雄狮代表英格 兰,独角兽代表苏格兰)是英国王室纹章上(即英国国徽)的动物。

n 英国历史上查里一世(King?Richard)因其勇武善战被誉为the?lion?hearted?king(狮心王),史

称“狮心王里查”。

n 英国著名诗人雪莱(Shelley)在一首诗中号召被压迫者像狮子醒来:?“Rise?like?lions?after?

slumber”?

n 在学术界有威风的人被称为a?literary?lion,有如汉语“泰斗,执牛耳”。

n 汉语言中用“虎”比喻勇猛、威武,例如“虎将”、“虎劲”、“虎威”。

n 老虎不仅具备西方狮子的正面形象,还有“凶狠、残忍”的反面形象,如孔子的“苛政猛于虎”。

n?Beard?the?lion?in?his?den?

n?An?ass?in?lion’s?skin?

n 英语民族也常用“狮子”来形容处于主宰地位的人。?

Jack?was?married?and?had?a?lioness?at?home.?

胆小

n 汉文化:鼠(胆小如鼠)

n 英语文化:兔子?(as?timid?as?a?hare)?

n?“兔”在汉文化中是敏捷、迅速的象征:“静如处子,动若脱兔”?

n?“鼠”在英语文化中是安静的象征:as?quiet?as?a?mouse?

n?as?timid?as?a?rabbit,?chicken?livered,?pigeon?hearted?

勤劳,吃苦耐劳

n 汉文化:牛(俯首甘为孺子牛,老黄牛)

n 英语文化:马?(work?like?a?horse?任劳任怨)?

n?as?strong?as?a?horse?健壮

n?horse?power?力大?

“鹬蚌相争,渔人得利”?《战国策》

n 英语:wrangle?for?an?ass’s?shadow?

Demosthenes(公元4世纪古雅典雄辩家和政治家)?

A?traveler?hired?an?Ass?to?convey?him?to?a?distant?place.?The?day?being?intensely?hot,?and?the?sun?shining?in?its?strength,?the?traveler?stopped?to?rest,?and?sought?shelter?from?the?heat?under?the?Shadow?of?the?Ass.?As?this?afforded?only?protection?for?one,?and?as?the?traveler?and?the?owner?of?the?Ass?both?claimed?it,?a?violent?dispute?arose?between?them?as?to?which?of?them?had?the?right?to?the?Shadow.?The?owner?maintained?that?he?had?let?the?Ass?only,?and?not?his?Shadow.?The?traveler?asserted?that?hehad,?with?the?hire?of?the?Ass,?hired?his?Shadow?also.?The?quarrel?proceeded?from?words?to?blows,?and?while?the?men?fought,?the?Ass?galloped?off.?“In?quarreling?about?the?shadow?we?often?lose?the?substance.”?

无意义的争吵

n 英国牧羊业发达?

To?separate?sheep?from?goats?

n?Sheep:?能力强,成绩突出者

n?Goats:?能力弱,业绩平平者

n?Black?sheep?(There?is?a?~?in?every?flock.)?害群之马

n 长黑毛的绵羊比较少,魔鬼的标志?

Could?you?try?these?ones??

n 牛饮

n 对牛弹琴

n 落汤鸡

n 狐假虎威

n 蠢得像头猪

n 如鱼得水

n 养虎遗患

n 狗改不了吃屎。

英汉动物喻体相同、喻义相异

n?Although?sometimes?Chinese?and?English?share?connotative?meanings,?in?many?cases?the?same?

animal?image?may?stand?for?different?connotations.?

n?The?most?conspicuous?example?is?狗?and?“dog”.?

n?In?Chinese?most?phrases?and?idioms?with?狗?contain?derogatory?senses:?走狗,癞皮狗,狗仗人

势,狼心狗肺,狗胆包天……?

n?In?English?“dog”is?thought?to?be?the?most?faithful?friend?of?human?beings,?most?phrases?and?

idioms?containing?the?word?“dog”have?neutral?or?commendatory?implications:?top?dog,?lucky?dog,?clever?dog,?help?a?lame?dog?over?a?stile,?Every?dog?has?its?day…?

n?China?Daily?“China’”?

龙?and?“Dragon”?

n 汉文化:“龙的传人”?descendents?of?the?dragon,?“真龙天子”true?sons?of?the?dragon?from?heaven?n 《中国成语大辞典》lists?115?entries?with?the?character?龙,?most?of?which?are?of?commendatory?

sense.?

n?The?connotation?of?the?word?“dragon”:?Sometimes?a?person?who?presents?himself?as?kind?and?

gentle?can?in?private?turn?out?to?be?a?dragon?who?breathes?fire.?

n?In?many?Western?folk?tales?the?dragon?is?a?terrible?vicious?beast?which?spits?fire.?The?prince?has?to?

kill?the?dragon?to?save?the?beautiful?princess.?

n?“chase?the?dragon”:?to?smoke?heroin?especially?when?it?is?heated?on?a?piece?of?aluminum?foil?and?

the?fumes?are?inhaled?through?a?tube.?服用鸦片(毒品)

n 英国古诗Beowulf歌颂与凶残暴虐的恶龙搏斗而取胜的英雄史诗。

n?Shakespeare,?Romeo?and?Juliet当Juliet听到表哥被Romeo杀死时,悲叹到:?

O?serpent?heart,?hid?with?a?flowering?face!?

Did?ever?dragon?keep?so?fair?a?cave??

Beautiful?tyrant!?Fiend?angelical!?

啊,花一样的面庞里藏着蛇的心!

哪一条龙曾经栖息在这清雅的洞府里?

美丽的暴君!天使般的恶魔!

n?A?dragon?lady:?以统治者身份行使权力的女人

n?The?Dragon/The?Great?Dragon/The?Old?Dragon:?指与上帝作对的魔鬼撒旦

n 亚洲四小龙:the?four?tigers?in?Asia?

n?As?Chinese?culture?is?spreading?all?over?the?world?and?more?people?in?the?West?fall?fond?of?舞龙

灯(dragon?lantern?dance)?and?龙舟赛(dragon?boat?race),?the?image?of?龙is?being?accepted?as?an?auspicious?image.?

n?To?distinguish?it?from?traditional?Western?“dragon”,?some?people?now?use?the?term“Chinese

dragon”.?

蝙蝠?and?Bat?

n 汉文化:“蝠”与“福”同音,象征吉祥、健康、幸福。

n 西方:丑陋邪恶的动物,与罪恶或黑暗势力相联系,特别是vampire?bat(吸血蝙蝠)。 n?As?blind?as?a?bat?

n?Crazy?as?bat?

n?Have?bats?in?the?belfry?

孔雀?and?Peacock?

n 汉文化:孔雀开屏 → 美?“?孔雀舞”?

n 西方:虚荣、自傲

n?As?proud?as?a?peacock?

n?A?peacock?in?his?pride?

n?Play?the?peacock?

n?He?attempted?to?peacock?his?way?through?the?world.?

猫头鹰?and?Owl?

n 汉文化:不祥之物?“夜猫子进宅,凶事自来”?

n 西方:智慧、博学的象征?as?wise?as?an?owl?

n?“A?wise?old?owl?lived?in?an?oak.?The?morehe?saw,?the?less?he?spoke.?The?less?he?spoke,?the?more?

he?heard.?Why?can’t?we?all?be?like?that?wise?old?bird?”?

—?英国民间童谣

英语动物词汇的象征意义

n 与汉语动物象征意义相同/接近的例子

与汉语动物象征意义相异的例子?

Crow?

Duck?

Fly?

Gull?

Hare?

Magpie?

Spider?

Tortoise?

Implication?of?Color?Terms?I?m?p?l?i?c?a?t?i?o?o?C?o?l?o?T?e?r?m?s?

We?ll?ii?ve?ii?n?a?coll?orful?world,?and?words?denotii?ng?coll?ors?for?part?of?the?nucll?ear?vocabull?ary?of?W?v?c?o?o?r?f?u?w?o?r?d?a?n?w?o?r?d?d?e?n?o?t?n?c?o?o?r?f?o?p?a?r?o?t?h?n?u?c?e?a?v?o?c?a?b?u?a?r?o?all?most?every?ll?anguage.?a?m?o?s?e?v?e?r?a?n?g?u?a?g?e?

n?However,?ii?n?Engll?ii?sh?ii?t?ii?s?usuall?ll?y?consii?dered?there?are?ell?even?basii?c?coll?ors,?namell?y?whii?te,?n H?o?w?e?v?e?r?E?n?g?s?u?s?u?a?c?o?n?s?d?e?r?e?t?h?e?r?a?r?e?e?v?e?b?a?s?c?o?o?r?s?n?a?m?e?w?h?t?e?bll?ack,?grey,?brown,?red,?green,?yell?ll?ow,?bll?ue,?purpll?e,?orange,?pii?nk.?b?a?c?k?g?r?e?y?b?r?o?w?n?r?e?d?g?r?e?e?n?y?e?o?w?b?u?e?p?u?r?p?e?o?r?a?n?g?e?p?n?k?

Dii?fferent?ll?anguages?may?have?different?number?of?coll?or?terms.?D?f?f?e?r?e?n?a?n?g?u?a?g?e?m?a?h?a?v?d?f?f?e?r?e?n?n?u?m?b?e?o?c?o?o?t?e?r?m?s?

Basii?c?Coll?ors?B?a?s?C?o?o?r?

n?In?Chii?nese?赤、橙、黄、绿、青、蓝、紫,the?seven?coll?ors?ii?n?the?raii?nbow,?are?thought?to?be?n I?C?h?n?e?s?赤 、 橙 、 黄 、 绿 、 青 、 蓝 、 紫 , t?h?s?e?v?e?c?o?o?r?t?h?r?a?n?b?o?w?a?r?t?h?o?u?g?h?t?b?the?basii?c?coll?ors.?t?h?b?a?s?c?o?o?r?s?

n?The?Chii?nese?绿、 青、 蓝?are?three?colors,?but?theii?r?correspondii?ng?words?ii?n?Engll?ii?sh?are?onll?y?n T?h?C?h?n?e?s?绿 青 蓝 a?r?t?h?r?e?c?o?o?r?s?b?u?t?h?e?c?o?r?r?e?s?p?o?n?d?n?w?o?r?d?E?n?g?s?a?r?o?n?two:?“green”?and?“bll?ue”.?So?青?can?onll?y?be?transll?ated?as?green?or?bll?ue.t?w?o?“?g?r?e?e?n?a?n?“?b?u?e?”?S?青 c?a?o?n?b?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?e?a?g?r?e?e?o?b?u?e?.?

n 青菜: n 青 菜

n 青椒: n 青 椒

n 青山: n 青 山

n 青天(蓝天/苍天): n 青 天 ( 蓝 天 /?苍 天 )

n 青砖: n 青 砖

青?can?all?so?refer?to?bll?ack.?青 c?a?a?s?r?e?f?e?t?b?a?c?k?

n 青布: n 青 布

n 青衫: n 青 衫

n 青丝: n 青 丝

青出于蓝而胜于蓝。 青 出 于 蓝 而 胜 于 蓝

n?Bll?ue?comes?from?the?ii?ndii?go?pll?ant?but?ii?s?bll?uer?than?the?pll?ant?ii?tsell?f.?n B?u?c?o?m?e?f?r?o?t?h?n?d?g?p?a?n?b?u?b?u?e?t?h?a?t?h?p?a?n?t?s?e?f?

n?Indii?go:?a?coll?or?between?bll?ue?and?vii?oll?et?靛青,靛蓝 n I?n?d?g?o?c?o?o?b?e?t?w?e?e?b?u?a?n?v?o?e?靛 青 , 靛

n?a?bll?ue?dye?obtained?from?pll?ants?or?made?syntheticall?ll?y?n b?u?d?y?o?b?t?a?n?e?f?r?o?p?a?n?t?o?m?a?d?s?y?n?t?h?e?t?c?a?

Color?terms?are?very?ii?mportant?ii?n?both?Engll?ii?sh?and?Chii?nese?ll?ii?terature.?Many?book?titll?es?C?o?o?t?e?r?m?a?r?v?e?r?m?p?o?r?t?a?n?b?o?t?E?n?g?s?a?n?C?h?n?e?s?t?e?r?a?t?u?r?e?M?a?n?b?o?o?t?t?e?contaii?n?coll?or?terms.?c?o?n?t?a?c?o?o?t?e?r?m?s?

n?Green?Hii?ll?ll?s?of?Afrii?ca?(Ernest?Hemii?ngway)?n G?r?e?e?H?o?A?f?r?c?(?E?r?n?e?s?H?e?m?n?g?w?a?y?

n?The?Scarll?et?ll?etter?(Nathanii?el?Hawthorne)?n T?h?S?c?a?r?e?e?t?t?e?(?N?a?t?h?a?n?e?H?a?w?t?h?o?r?n?e?

n?Whii?te?Fang?(Jack?London)?n W?h?t?F?a?n?(?J?a?c?L?o?n?d?o?n?

There?are?so?many?verse?ll?ii?nes?contaii?nii?ng?coll?or?terms?from?cll?assii?c?Chii?nese?poems:?T?h?e?r?a?r?s?m?a?n?v?e?r?s?n?e?c?o?n?t?a?n?n?c?o?o?t?e?r?m?f?r?o?c?a?s?s?C?h?n?e?s?p?o?e?m?s?n 浮,拨。?n 毛 浮 绿 水 , 掌 拨 青 波 。

The?i?feathers?fll?oat?on?the?water?the?webs?push?the?waves?wii?th?a?T?h?w?h?t?f?e?a?t?h?e?r?f?o?a?o?t?h?w?a?t?e?g?r?e?e?n?t?h?r?e?w?e?b?p?u?s?t?h?c?r?y?s?t?a?w?a?v?e?w?t?swii?ng.?s?w?n?g?

n 两个鸣,一行上。?n 两 个 黄 鹂 鸣 翠 柳 , 一 行 白 鹭 上 青 天 。

Two?l?orii?oles?sii?ng?amii?d?the?wii?ll?ll?ows?A?row?of?i?egrets?fll?y?ii?nto?the?l?sky.?T?w?g?o?d?e?o?r?o?e?s?n?a?m?t?h?w?o?w?g?r?e?e?n?r?o?o?w?h?t?e?g?r?e?t?f?n?t?t?h?b?u?s?k?y?颜色词属于文化限定词,具有强烈的民族文化特征,每个民族都有自己的颜色观。在不同的民 族文化中,同一种颜色表达不同的文化心理,引起不同的联想,具有不同的文化内涵。?

Red?红色

n 红?and?“red”?have?quite?different?connotations?in?Chinese?and?English?as?is?determined?by?

the?two?different?cultures?behind?the?two?languages.?

n 红?stands?for?jubilation?in?Chinese?so?in?the?past?the?bride?usually?wore?red?dresses?(many?

still?do?the?same?today).?One?of?the?extended?meanings?of?红stands?for?wealth?and?nobility.?朱门?and?红楼both?refer?to?dwellings?of?the?upper?class.?

n?Though?many?peoplein?Britain?are?fond?of?red,?its?association?is?very?different?in?the?English?

mind.?

n?David?Hawkes?

n 《红楼梦》The?Story?of?the?Stone?

贾宝玉?“怡红公子”Green?Boy?

怡红院?the?House?of?Green?Delight?

悼红轩?Nostalgia?Studio?

Red?红色

n 英语民族:流血、牺牲、殉难。red?hands(沾满血的手),red?battle(血战)

n 对red的恐惧感可在《圣经》中找到答案。根据《圣经?福音书》的记载,耶稣在受难前与十

二门徒共进“最后的晚餐”。进餐时,耶稣拿起杯来说“你们都喝这个,这是我立约的血,为 多人流出来,使罪得赦”。之后,耶稣甘愿被钉在十字架上,流血牺牲,用自己的生命作赎 价以救赎世人。

n 英语中大写Red意指“左翼政治主张”、“共产主义者”。

n?Red?hunter?迫害共产主义者或进步分子的人

n?Get?red?“赤化”?

n?red?也成为“政治上激进”的代名词?

Reds?under?the?beds?

n 指“认为共产党就隐藏在公众之中,并对国家造成威胁”的无端猜疑。

n?Senator?Joseph?MaCarthy?

n?MaCarthyism?二战后的美国,战争的阴影还没有消失,冷战的恐怖气氛又接踵而至。美国

一方面在国际上与苏联对抗,另一方面在国内清除所谓的“共产主义意识形态”,打击进步势 力。从20世纪40年代末到50年代初,掀起了以“麦卡锡主义”为代表的反共、排外运动,涉及 美国政治、教育和文化等领域的各个层面,其影响至今仍然可见。?

red在经济贸易词汇里象征“赤字、亏损、负债”。

n?red?letter?

n?in?the?red/red?ink?

n?get?into?red?

n?get?out?of?the?red?

n?red?tip?on?the?stock?market?

英语中red也有其正面的联想意义和语义。

n?red?letter?days(纪念日、喜庆的日子)在西方一般指圣诞节或其他的节日,因为这些日子在

日历上是用红色标明的。

n?roll?out?the?red?carpet?for?sb.?铺展红地毯隆重地欢迎某人

n 美国白宫内有间Red?Room,常用来举行小型招待会。?

Green?绿色

n?As?a?color?liked?by?most?people,?“green”is?often?used?to?refer?to?plants:?

n?green?belt?

n?green?fingers?

n?green?winter:?

n?green?revolution:?

n?“green?lungs?of?the?city”?

n?green?food?

Look?at?this?sentence:?

n?If?digital?cash?was?this?easy?to?use,?people?would?stop?using?thegreen?power?Do?you?see?green?in?my?eye??

n?lack?of?experience?

n?green?hand,?green?horn?新手

n 你看我是好欺骗的吗??

=Do?you?think?I?have?

no?experience?so?you

can?deceive?me??

n?Another?connotative?meaning?of?green?is?jealousy.?

n?green?eyed?monster?红眼病?(pink?eye)?

n?Red?eye:?the?undesirable?effect?in?flash?photography?of?people?appearing?to?have?red?eyes?caused?

by?a?reflection?from?the?retina.?

n?red?eye?flight:?a?flight?on?which?a?passenger?cannot?expect?to?get?much?sleep?on?account?of?the?

time?of?departure?or?arrival.?

Green?also?means?“full?of?vigor?or?vitality”.?

n?Her?grand?children?wished?her?a?green?old?age.?

n?Though?in?the?green,?he?may?not?be?equal?to?the?task.?

n?“How?old?was?I?when?you?first?took?me?in?a?boat?”“Five,?and?you?were?nearly?killed?when?I?

brought?the?fish?in?too?green?and?nearly?tore?the?boat?to?pieces.”?

n?“你头一次带我上船时我多大?”?

“五岁。当我把那条活蹦乱跳的大鱼弄上船的时候,你差点儿送了命,那家伙差点儿把小 船撞得七零八碎。”?

All?ll?usii?on?and?Metaphor?A?u?s?o?a?n?M?e?t?a?p?h?o?

n?All?ll?usii?on?典故 n A?u?s?o?典

n?Metaphor?隐喻?n M?e?t?a?p?h?o?隐 喻

All?ll?usii?on?A?u?s?o?

Defii?nii?tii?on:?D?e?f?n?t?o?n?n?An?all?ll?usii?on?is?a?brii?ef?reference?to?a?person,?event,?or?pll?ace,?real?or?fii?ctii?tii?ous,?or?to?a?work?of?n A?a?u?s?o?b?r?e?r?e?f?e?r?e?n?c?t?p?e?r?s?o?n?e?v?e?n?t?o?p?a?c?e?r?e?a?o?f?c?t?t?o?u?s?o?t?w?o?r?o?art.?a?r?t?

n?All?ll?usii?on?may?be?drawn?from?hii?story,?geography,?lii?terature,?or?rell?ii?gii?on.?n A?u?s?o?m?a?b?d?r?a?w?f?r?o?h?s?t?o?r?y?g?e?o?g?r?a?p?h?y?t?e?r?a?t?u?r?e?o?r?e?g?o?n?

n?An?all?ll?usii?on?ii?s?understandabll?e?onll?y?to?those?wii?th?prii?or?knowll?edge?of?the?reference?ii?n?n A?a?u?s?o?u?n?d?e?r?s?t?a?n?d?a?b?o?n?t?t?h?o?s?w?t?p?r?o?k?n?o?w?e?d?g?o?t?h?r?e?f?e?r?e?n?c?questii?on?(as?the?wrii?ter?assumes?the?reader?has).?q?u?e?s?t?o?(?a?t?h?w?r?t?e?a?s?s?u?m?e?t?h?r?e?a?d?e?h?a?s?)?

n?In?transll?atii?on,?alll?usii?on?may?sometii?mes?be?rendered?ll?iterall?ll?y?wii?thout?mii?ssii?ng?the?orii?gii?nal?n I?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?n?a?u?s?o?m?a?s?o?m?e?t?m?e?b?r?e?n?d?e?r?e?t?e?r?a?w?t?h?o?u?m?s?s?n?t?h?o?r?g?n?a?meanii?ng.?m?e?a?n?n?g?

n?But?ii?n?most?cases?addii?tii?onal?ii?nformatii?on?ii?s?necessary?to?get?the?real?meanii?ng?across?to?n B?u?m?o?s?c?a?s?e?a?d?d?t?o?n?a?n?f?o?r?m?a?t?o?n?e?c?e?s?s?a?r?t?g?e?t?h?r?e?a?m?e?a?n?n?a?c?r?o?s?t?target?ll?anguage?readers.?t?a?r?g?e?a?n?g?u?a?g?r?e?a?d?e?r?s?

n?Even?Homer?sometimes?nod.?

n?I?wonder?whether?he?is?a?Trojan?horse.?

n?He?gained?his?wealth?by?Shylocking.?

n?They?have,?by?this?very?act,?opened?a?Pandora’s?box.?

n?One?of?the?purposes?of?transll?ation?ii?s?to?ii?ntroduce?foreii?gn?cull?ture.?n O?n?o?t?h?p?u?r?p?o?s?e?o?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?t?n?t?r?o?d?u?c?f?o?r?e?g?c?u?t?u?r?e?

n?A?transll?atii?on?shoull?d?“retain?some?exotii?cness?but?contain?no?foreii?gn?tone”?(保留洋味,避 n t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?s?h?o?u?“?r?e?t?a?s?o?m?e?x?o?t?c?n?e?s?b?u?c?o?n?t?a?n?f?o?r?e?g?t?o?n?e?( 保 留 洋 味 , 免洋腔).?免 洋 腔 )

n?In?some?transll?atii?on?foreii?gn?ii?mages?have?been?“assii?mii?ll?ated”?to?ll?ook?ll?ii?ke?Chii?nese,?or?as?ii?sn I?s?o?m?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?f?o?r?e?g?m?a?g?e?h?a?v?b?e?e?“?a?s?s?m?a?t?e?d?t?o?o?k?C?h?n?e?s?e?o?a?s?

commented?by?some?peopll?e,?foreii?gners?were?“dressed?ii?n?typii?cal?Chii?nese?gowns”.?c?o?m?m?e?n?t?e?b?s?o?m?p?e?o?p?e?f?o?r?e?g?n?e?r?w?e?r?“?d?r?e?s?s?e?t?y?p?c?a?C?h?n?e?s?g?o?w?n?s?”?.?How?would?you?improve?them??

n?Her?ideal?husband?must?be?as?handsome?as?Adonis?and?as?rich?as?Mammon.?

她想要的丈夫一定得有潘安之美,邓通之富。

n?As?is?know?to?all?that?the?tailor?makes?the?man,?John?decided?to?buy?some?decent?dress?for?the?

occasion.?

大家都知道佛靠金装,人靠衣装,约翰决定到时候得买几件体面的衣裳。?

Metaphor?M?e?t?a?p?h?o?

Defii?nii?tii?on:?D?e?f?n?t?o?n?

n?A?metaphor?ii?s?a?fii?gure?of?speech?that?compares?unll?ii?ke?thii?ngs?by?sayii?ng?that?one?thii?ng?ii?s?n m?e?t?a?p?h?o?f?g?u?r?o?s?p?e?e?c?t?h?a?c?o?m?p?a?r?e?u?n?k?t?h?n?g?b?s?a?y?n?t?h?a?o?n?t?h?n?the?other.?t?h?o?t?h?e?r?

On?a?sii?mpll?e?ll?evell?,?a?phrase?such?as?‘‘?the?heart?of?the?matter’?ii?s?a?metaphor?as?matters?do?not?O?s?m?p?e?v?e?p?h?r?a?s?s?u?c?a?t?h?h?e?a?r?o?t?h?m?a?t?t?e?r?m?e?t?a?p?h?o?a?m?a?t?t?e?r?d?n?o?actuall?ll?y?have?hearts.?a?c?t?u?a?h?a?v?h?e?a?r?t?s?.?

Try?to?translate?the?following?sentences:?

n?He?has?set?up?a?body?called?the?Security?Council.?

n?I’m?proud?of?my?extraordinarily?good?ear?for?accents?and?dialects.?

n?I?could?stomach?no?more?and?go?out.?

n?A?sleepy?capital?of?a?few?hundred?thousand?people?has?mushroomed?to?a?crowded?city?of?2?

million.?

n?The?news?agency?is?the?traditional?vehicle?for?official?leadership?statements.?

Cull?turall?ll?y?Unii?que?Terms?C?u?t?u?r?a?U?n?q?u?T?e?r?m?

n?Behii?nd?every?ll?anguage?ii?s?the?cull?ture?of?the?communii?ty?that?speaks?that?particull?ar?n B?e?h?n?e?v?e?r?a?n?g?u?a?g?t?h?c?u?t?u?r?o?t?h?c?o?m?m?u?n?t?t?h?a?s?p?e?a?k?t?h?a?p?a?r?t?c?u?a?language.?a?n?g?u?a?g?e?

n?Dii?fferent?cull?tures?ii?n?the?worll?d?share?much,?but?there?ii?s?as?much?unii?queness?ii?n?each?n D?f?f?e?r?e?n?c?u?t?u?r?e?t?h?w?o?r?s?h?a?r?m?u?c?h?b?u?t?h?e?r?a?m?u?c?u?n?q?u?e?n?e?s?e?a?c?cull?ture.?c?u?t?u?r?e?

n?Thii?s?causes?cull?tural?gaps?or?vacancii?es.?n T?h?c?a?u?s?e?c?u?t?u?r?a?g?a?p?o?v?a?c?a?n?c?e?s?

n?How?to?fii?ll?l?ii?n?such?gaps?and?ii?ntroduce?ii?nto?the?target?ll?anguage?thii?ngs?unii?que?ii?n?the?source?n H?o?t?f?s?u?c?g?a?p?a?n?n?t?r?o?d?u?c?n?t?t?h?t?a?r?g?e?a?n?g?u?a?g?t?h?n?g?u?n?q?u?t?h?s?o?u?r?c?cull?ture?ii?s?a?dii?ffii?cull?t?jj?ob.?c?u?t?u?r?d?f?f?c?u?o?b?

The?foll?ll?owii?ng?are?some?terms?unii?que?ii?n?Chii?nese?cull?ture:?T?h?f?o?o?w?n?a?r?s?o?m?t?e?r?m?u?n?q?u?C?h?n?e?s?c?u?t?u?r?e?

n 科举、请安、虚岁、跑龙套、腊八粥、低保、离休、转业、希望工程、菜篮子工程、精神文 n 科 举 、 请 安 、 虚 岁 、 跑 龙 套 、 腊 八 粥 、 低 保 、 离 休 、 转 业 、 希 望 工 程 、 菜 篮 子 工 程 、 精 神 明、三个代表?明 、 三 个 代 表

In?most?cases?ll?ii?teral?transll?atii?on?faii?ll?s?to?convey?the?meanii?ng.?So?notes?or?expll?anatii?ons?are?I?m?o?s?c?a?s?e?t?e?r?a?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?f?a?t?c?o?n?v?e?t?h?m?e?a?n?n?g?S?n?o?t?e?o?e?x?p?a?n?a?t?o?n?a?r?often?needed?to?hell?p?the?target?reader?understand?theii?r?true?meanii?ng.?o?f?t?e?n?e?e?d?e?t?h?e?t?h?t?a?r?g?e?r?e?a?d?e?u?n?d?e?r?s?t?a?n?t?h?e?t?r?u?m?e?a?n?n?g?

请安 请

n?go?down?on?one’’?s?knee?ii?n?sall?ute?n g?d?o?w?o?o?n?e?k?n?e?s?a?u?t?

n?couch?one’’?s?hand?and?knee?to?the?ground?ii?n?Manchu?sall?ute?n c?o?u?c?o?n?e?h?a?n?a?n?k?n?e?t?t?h?g?r?o?u?n?M?a?n?c?h?s?a?u?t?

饺子

n?‘dumpling’?can?refer?to?several?different?kinds?of?food?like?元宵,?汤圆,?饺子,?馄饨,?etc.?n?jiaozi?

二胡

n?‘Chinese?violin’?may?refer?to?violins?made?in?China?

n?erhu?

There?are?a?large?number?of?Chinese?words?transliterated?from?English.?They?refer?to?things?that?had

not?existed?in?China?but?were?introduced?in?or?imported?later.?In?a?sense?they?were?once‘unique’?in?English?culture.?

n?

n?

n?

n?

n?

n?

n?

n?

n?romantic?marathon?vitamin?shampoo?pump?club?hysteria?Utopia?

bowling?

And?we?see?a?process?of?a?number?of?transliterated?words?replaced?by?more?meaningful?translation:?

n?democracy?德谟克拉西

n?microphone?麦克风

n?science?赛因斯

n?index?引得

n?engine?引擎

n?telephone?德律风

n?cement?水门汀

n?ultimatum?哀的美敦书?

Some?Chinese?Terms:?

n 三个代表

n 高举邓小平理论伟大旗帜,全面贯彻“三个代表”重要思想

n 三讲教育(讲学习、讲政治、讲正气)?

Trademarks?and?Advertisements?

Advertii?sements?A?d?v?e?r?t?s?e?m?e?n?t?

n?The?globall?ii?zatii?on?makes?the?transll?atii?on?of?advertii?sements?very?ii?mportant.?n T?h?g?o?b?a?z?a?t?o?m?a?k?e?t?h?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?o?a?d?v?e?r?t?s?e?m?e?n?t?v?e?r?m?p?o?r?t?a?n?t?

n?Unique?linguistic?characteristics?of?advertisements:?brevity,?novelty,?and?sonority.?n

n?Translatii?on?of?advertii?sements?requii?res?specii?al?abii?ll?ii?ty?of?recreatii?on.?n T?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?o?a?d?v?e?r?t?s?e?m?e?n?t?r?e?q?u?r?e?s?p?e?c?a?a?b?t?o?r?e?c?r?e?a?t?o?n?

n?The?transll?ator?has?to?consii?der?not?only?the?meanii?ng?of?the?orii?gii?nal?text,?but?all?so?how?n T?h?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?h?a?t?c?o?n?s?d?e?n?o?o?n?t?h?m?e?a?n?n?o?t?h?o?r?g?n?a?t?e?x?t?b?u?a?s?h?o?potentii?al?customers?wii?ll?l?receii?ve?such?transll?atii?ons.?p?o?t?e?n?t?a?c?u?s?t?o?m?e?r?w?r?e?c?e?v?s?u?c?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?n?s?

n?“蚊子杀杀杀”?n “?蚊 子 杀 杀 杀

Transll?atii?on?of?advertii?sements?requii?res?re?creatii?vii?ty.?T?r?a?n?s?a?t?o?o?a?d?v?e?r?t?s?e?m?e?n?t?r?e?q?u?r?e?r?e???c?r?e?a?t?v?t?y?

n 哪里有“芯”,哪里就有希望。(chii?ps)?n 哪 里 有 “?芯 ”?, 哪 里 就 有 希 望 。 (?c?h?p?s?

n 百闻不如一见。(tea)?n 百 闻 不 如 一 见 。 (?t?e?a?

n?A?dii?amond?ii?s?forever.?n d?a?m?o?n?f?o?r?e?v?e?r?

n?Onll?y?your?tii?me?ii?s?more?precii?ous?than?thii?s?watch.?n O?n?y?o?u?t?m?m?o?r?p?r?e?c?o?u?t?h?a?t?h?w?a?t?c?h?

Trademarks?T?r?a?d?e?m?a?r?k?

n?A?trademark?must?be?terse,?sonorous,?attractii?ve,?easy?to?remember,?and?wii?th?an?aesthetii?c?n t?r?a?d?e?m?a?r?m?u?s?b?t?e?r?s?e?s?o?n?o?r?o?u?s?a?t?t?r?a?c?t?v?e?e?a?s?t?r?e?m?e?m?b?e?r?a?n?w?t?a?a?e?s?t?h?e?t?touch,?sometii?mes?provii?dii?ng?a?hii?nt?of?the?functii?on?of?the?product?ii?t?stands?for.?t?o?u?c?h?s?o?m?e?t?m?e?p?r?o?v?d?n?h?n?o?t?h?f?u?n?c?t?o?o?t?h?p?r?o?d?u?c?s?t?a?n?d?f?o?r?n?The?best?transll?ated?trademarks?are?creatii?ve?transll?ii?teratii?on.?n T?h?b?e?s?t?r?a?n?s?a?t?e?t?r?a?d?e?m?a?r?k?a?r?c?r?e?a?t?v?t?r?a?n?s?t?e?r?a?t?o?n?

n?Coca?Coll?a?可口可乐?n C?o?c?C?o?可 口 可 乐

Try?to?analyze?why?some?of?the?characters?and?words?are?used?instead?of?pureT?r?t?a?n?a?l?y?z?w?h?s?o?m?o?t?h?c?h?a?r?a?c?t?e?r?a?n?w?o?r?d?a?r?u?s?e?i?n?s?t?e?a?o?p?u?r?e?

transliteration.?t?r?a?n?s?l?i?t?e?r?a?t?i?o?n?n?Cannon?n C?a?n?n?o?n?Crest?n C?r?e?s?n?Head?an?Shoull?ders?n H?e?a?a?S?h?o?u?d?e?r?n?Johnson?n J?o?h?n?s?o?n?Goodyear?n G?o?o?d?y?e?a?n?Rejj?oii?ce?n R?e?o?c?n?Sheraton?n S?h?e?r?a?t?o?n?Safeguard?n S?a?f?e?g?u?a?r?n?7?Up?n U?n?Sprii?ten S?p?r?t?e?

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